- Blenheim Palace, Woodstock OX20 1PX, Apvienotā Karaliste
- pałac, zamek
Blenheim Palace – posiadłość wiejska zlokalizowana w Blenheim w hrabstwie Oxfordshire w Anglii. Jako jedyny w Anglii obiekt tego typu nosi tytuł "Pałacu" (Palace), nie będąc jednocześnie własnością władzy kościelnej lub królewskiej.
Został wybudowany w latach 1705-1722, miał stanowić podarunek dla Johna Churchilla, 1. księcia Marlborough od wdzięcznego narodu za zwycięstwa w czasie wojny o sukcesję hiszpańską z Francją i Bawarią, zwłaszcza w bitwie pod Blenheim. Marlborough na skutek intryg politycznych został zdyskredytowany, ucierpiała także reputacja jego architekta, który stworzył Blenheim Palace - Johna Vanbrugha.
Pałac został zaprojektowany w stylu barokowym, co jest rzadkością w Anglii. Łączy w sobie funkcje domu mieszkalnego, mauzoleum i pomnika narodowego. W pałacu urodził się premier Wielkiej Brytanii, Winston Churchill.
Blenheim Palace is a monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England.
Blenheim Palace (pronounced /ˈblɛnɪm/ BLEN-im) is a monumental English country house situated in the civil parish of Blenheim near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. It is the principal residence of the Dukes of Marlborough, and the only non-royal non-episcopal country house in England to hold the title of palace. The palace, one of England's largest houses, was built between 1705 and circa 1722. Blenheim Palace was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Sitein 1987.
The building of the palace was originally intended to be a reward to John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, from a grateful nation for the duke's military triumphs against the French and Bavarians during the War of the Spanish Succession, culminating in the 1704 Battle of Blenheim. However, soon after its construction began, the palace became the subject of political infighting; this led to Marlborough's exile, the fall from power of his duchess, and lasting damage to the reputation of the architect Sir John Vanbrugh.
Designed in the rare, and short-lived, English Baroque style, architectural appreciation of the palace is as divided today as it was in the 1720s. It is unique in its combined use as a family home, mausoleum and national monument. The palace is also notable as the birthplace and ancestral home of Sir Winston Churchill.
Following the palace's completion, it became the home of the Churchill, later Spencer-Churchill, family for the next 300 years, and various members of the family have wrought changes to the interiors, park and gardens. At the end of the 19th century, the palace was saved from ruin by funds gained from the 9th Duke of Marlborough's marriage to American railroad heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt. The exterior of the palace remains in good repair.
The architect selected for the ambitious project was a controversial one. The Duchess was known to favour Sir Christopher Wren, famous for St Paul's Cathedral and many other national buildings. The Duke however, following a chance meeting at a playhouse, is said to have commissioned Sir John Vanbrughthere and then. Vanbrugh, a popular dramatist, was an untrained architect, who usually worked in conjunction with the trained and practical Nicholas Hawksmoor. The duo had recently completed the first stages of the Baroque Castle Howard. This huge Yorkshire mansion was one of England's first houses in the flamboyant European Baroque style. Marlborough had obviously been impressed by this grandiose pile and wished for something similar at Woodstock.
Blenheim Palace ("John Vanbrugh's castle air"): west facade showing the unique severe towering stone belvederes ornamenting the skyline
Blenheim, however, was not to provide Vanbrugh with the architectural plaudits he imagined it would. The fight over funding led to accusations of extravagance and impracticality of design, many of these charges levelled by the Whig factions in power. He found no defender in the Duchess of Marlborough. Having been foiled in her wish to employ Wren, she levelled criticism at Vanbrugh on every level, from design to taste. In part their problems arose from what was demanded of the architect. The nation (which was then assumed, by both architect and owners, to be paying the bills) wanted a monument, but the Duchess wanted not only a fitting tribute to her husband but also a comfortable home, two requirements that were not compatible in 18th-century architecture. Finally, in the early days of the building the Duke was frequently away on his military campaigns, and it was left to the Duchess to negotiate with Vanbrugh. More aware than her husband of the precarious state of the financial aid they were receiving, she attempted to curb Vanbrugh's grandiose ideas in her usual arrogant fashion, rather than explain the true reasons behind her frugality.
Following their final altercation, Vanbrugh was banned from the site. In 1719, whilst the Duchess was away, Vanbrugh viewed the palace in secret. However, when he and his wife, with the Earl of Carlisle, visited the completed Blenheim as members of the viewing public in 1725, they were refused admission even to enter the park. The palace had been completed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, Vanbrugh's friend and architectural associate.
Vanbrugh's severe massed Baroque used at Blenheim never truly caught the public imagination, and was quickly superseded by the revival of the Palladian style. Vanbrugh's reputation was irreparably damaged, and he received no further truly great public commissions. For his final design, Seaton Delaval Hall, which was hailed as his masterpiece, he used a refined version of the Baroque employed at Blenheim. He died shortly before its completion.
Foto: Žanna Žaka (timenote.info).
Podaj źródło: wikipedia.org