Józef Cyrankiewicz

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Józef Cyrankiewicz, Юзеф Циранкевич
Communist Party worker, Prime minister, Repression organizer, supporter, Victim of nazism, WWII participant
Warszawa, Powązki Military Cemetery

Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 – January 20, 1989) was a Polish Socialist and after 1948 Communist politician. He served as premier of the People's Republic of Poland between 1947 and 1952, and again between 1954 and 1970. He also served as Chairman of the Polish Council of State from 1970 to 1972.

Early life

Born in Tarnów, in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Cyrankiewicz attended Kraków's Jagiellonian University. He became the secretary of the local branch of the Polish Socialist Party in 1935.

World War II

Active in the Union of Armed Struggle (Związek Walki Zbrojnej, later renamed into Armia Krajowa), the Polish resistance organization, from the beginning of Poland's 1939 defeat at the start of World War II, Cyrankiewicz was captured by the Gestapo in the spring of 1941 and after imprisonment at Montelupich sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp. He arrived on September 4, 1942, and received registration number 62,933.

While there, he contacted other socialists and tried to organize resistance. He worked on bringing international prisoners' groups together. The organization that was formed struggled to pass the message about what was happening in the camp to the outside. Cyrankiewicz, along with other Auschwitz prisoners, was transferred to Mauthausen as the front approached Auschwitz. He was eventually liberated by the US Army.

Rise to power

Following the end of the war, he became secretary-general of the Polish Socialist Party's central executive committee in 1946. minister (pl. premier). However, soon there was factional infighting in the Party and eventually it split in two: one faction led by Cyrankiewicz, the other by Edward Osóbka-Morawski, who was also prime minister.

Osóbka-Morawski thought that the PSP should join with the other non-communist party in Poland, the Polish Peasant Party, to form a united front against communism. Cyrankiewicz argued that the PSP should support the communists (who held most of the posts in the government) in carrying through a socialist programme, while opposing the imposition of one party rule. The communists played on this division in the PSP, dismissing Osóbka-Morawski and making Cyrankiewicz prime minister.

Upon the formal merger of the Polish Socialist and Communist Parties in 1948, Cyrankiewicz was named secretary of the central committee of the new Polish United Workers' Party. He gave up the prime minister's post in 1952 because party boss Bolesław Bierut wanted the post for himself.

However, in 1954, after Poland returned to "collective leadership," Cyrankiewicz returned to the premiership, a post he would hold until 1970. By this time, there was little left of Cyrankiewicz the socialist, as evidenced during the 1956 upheaval following Nikita Khrushchev's "secret speech." He tried to repress the rioting that erupted across the country at first, threatening that "any provocateur or lunatic who raises his hand against the people's government may be sure that this hand will be chopped off." Cyrankiewicz also gave the order for soldiers to fire on the protesters during the 1970 demonstrations on the coast in which 42 people were killed and more than a thousand wounded. A few months after these demonstrations, Cyrankiewicz went into semi-retirement and was named chairman of the Council of State--a post equivalent to that of president. He held this post until he retired altogether in 1972.

Cyrankiewicz died in 1989, a few months before the collapse of the regime.


Source: wikipedia.org

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        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Nina AndryczNina AndryczWife11.11.191231.01.2014
        2Krystyna Tempska-CyrankiewiczKrystyna Tempska-CyrankiewiczCivil wife17.03.191929.11.2008
        3Władysław KruczekWładysław KruczekFamiliar, Partymate27.04.191005.11.2003
        4Adam ŻebrowskiAdam ŻebrowskiEmployee09.11.191304.09.1981
        5Zofia WasilkowskaZofia WasilkowskaEmployee09.12.191001.12.1996
        6Czesław RydalskiCzesław RydalskiEmployee12.07.190310.07.1968
        7Jan RabanowskiJan RabanowskiEmployee10.06.190721.03.1958
        8Tadeusz KunickiTadeusz KunickiEmployee01.06.192701.08.1977
        9Antoni RadlińskiAntoni RadlińskiEmployee07.07.191031.05.1992
        10Zdzisław DrozdZdzisław DrozdEmployee27.03.192511.04.1994
        Czesław WiśniewskiEmployee, Partymate17.11.193218.10.2014
        12Mieczysław MoczarMieczysław MoczarPartymate25.12.191301.11.1986
        13Marian SpychalskiMarian SpychalskiPartymate06.12.190607.06.1980
        14Władysław GomułkaWładysław GomułkaPartymate06.02.190501.09.1982

        01.09.1939 | Invasion of Poland

        The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War (Polish: Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku) in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß (Case White) in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement which terminated the Russian and Japanese hostilities (Nomonhan incident) in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.

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        15.02.1951 | Polska zawarła z ZSRR umowę o zmianie granic

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        03.08.1954 | Milicja przeprowadziła Akcję „X-2”, w wyniku której do obozów pracy wysiedlono ponad 1500 zakonnic oraz skonfiskowano 323 obiekty zakonne

        Akcja „X-2” – operacja wysiedlenia zakonnic i likwidacji domów zakonnych, dokonana w 1954 przez władze PRL.

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        28.06.1956 | Poznań 1956 protests

        The Poznań 1956 protests, also known as the Poznań 1956 uprising or Poznań June (Polish: Poznański Czerwiec), were the first of several massive protests against the government of the People's Republic of Poland. Demonstrations by workers demanding better conditions began on June 28, 1956 at Poznań's Cegielski Factories and were met with violent repression. A crowd of approximately 100,000 gathered in the city center near the local Ministry of Public Security building. About 400 tanks and 10,000 soldiers of the People's Army of Poland and the Internal Security Corps under Polish-Soviet general Stanislav Poplavsky were ordered to suppress the demonstration and during the pacification fired at the protesting civilians.

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        29.06.1956 | Po krwawym stłumieniu przez wojsko protestu poznańskich robotników, premier Józef Cyrankiewicz w wieczornym przemówieniu radiowym powiedział m.in.: Każdy prowokator czy szaleniec, który odważy się podnieść rękę przeciw władzy ludowej, niech będzie pewny, że mu tę rękę władza ludowa odrąbie!

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        11.12.1970 | 1970 Polish protests

        The Polish 1970 protests (Polish: Grudzień 1970) occurred in northern Poland in December 1970. The protests were sparked by a sudden increase of prices of food and other everyday items. As a result of the riots, which were put down by the Polish People's Army and the Citizen's Militia, at least 42 people were killed and more than 1,000 wounded.

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        14.12.1970 | Grudzień 1970: robotnicy Stoczni Gdańskiej odmówili podjęcia pracy i wielotysięczny tłum przed południem udał się pod siedzibę Komitetu Wojewódzkiego PZPR w Gdańsku

        Grudzień 1970, wydarzenia grudniowe, rewolta grudniowa, wypadki grudniowe, masakra na Wybrzeżu – protesty robotników w Polsce w dniach 14-22 grudnia 1970 roku (demonstracje, protesty, strajki, wiece, zamieszki) głównie w Gdyni, Gdańsku, Szczecinie i Elblągu, stłumione przez milicję i wojsko.

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