Napoleon III Bonaparte

Добавить новую картинку!
Дата народження:
Дата смерті:
Додаткові імена:
Šarls Luijs Napoleons Bonaparts, Napoleons III;Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte;, Шарль Луи́ Наполео́н Бонапа́рт
Король, Політик, Правитель, Президент
Встановіть кладовищі

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808  – 9 January 1873) was the President of the French Second Republic and as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I, christened as Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until 4 September 1870. He holds the unusual distinction of being both the first titular president and the lastmonarch of France.

Napoleon III is primarily remembered for an energetic foreign policy which aimed to jettison the limitations imposed on France since 1815 by the Concert of Europe and reassert French influence in Europe and abroad. A brief war against Austria in 1859 largely completed the process of Italian unification. In theNear East, Napoleon III spearheaded allied action against Russia in the Crimean War and restored French presence in the Levant, claiming for France the role of protector of the Maronite Christians. A French garrison in Rome likewise secured the Papal States against annexation by Italy, defeating the Italians atMentana and winning the support of French Catholics for Napoleon's regime.

In the Far East, Napoleon III established French rule in Cochinchina and New Caledonia. French interests in China were upheld in the Second Opium War and the Taiping Rebellion; an abortive campaign against Korea was launched in 1866 while a military mission to Japan failed to prevent the restoration of Imperial rule. French intervention in Mexico was also unsuccessful and was terminated in 1867 due to mounting Mexican resistance and American diplomatic pressure.

Domestically, Napoleon's reign was a major period of industrialisation for the French economy. He also oversaw a major renovation of Paris that created the outline of the modern city. The Second French Empire was overthrown three days after Napoleon's disastrous surrender at the Battle of Sedan in 1870, which resulted in both the proclamation of the French Third Republic and the cession of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to the newly formed German Empire.

Louis Napoleon has a historical reputation as a womanizer, yet he referred to his behaviour in the following manner: "It is usually the man who attacks. As for me, I defend myself, and I often capitulate." He had many mistresses. During his reign, it was the task of Count Felix Bacciochi, his social secretary, to arrange for trysts and to procure women for the emperor's favours. His affairs were not trivial sideshows: they distracted him from governing, affected his relationship with the empress, and diminished him in the views of the other European courts.Among his numerous love affairs and mistresses were:

Paul Hadol's caricature of Bellanger toying with Napoleon

  • Mathilde Bonaparte, his cousin and fiancee
  • Maria Anna Schiess (1812–1880), Allensbach (Lake of Constance, Germany), mother of his son Bonaventur Karrer (1839–1921)
  • Alexandrine Éléonore Vergeot, laundress at the prison at Ham, mother of his sons Alexandre Louis Eugène and Louis Ernest Alexandre
  • Elisa Rachel Felix, the "most famous actress in Europe"
  • Harriet Howard, (1823–1865) wealthy and a major financial backer
  • Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione (22 March 1837 – 28 November 1899) Spy, Artist and famous beauty, sent by Camillo Cavour to influence the Emperor's politics
  • Marie-Anne Waleska, a possible mistress, who was the wife of Count Alexandre Joseph Count Colonna-Walewski, his relative and foreign minister
  • Justine Marie Le Boeuf, also known as Marguerite Bellanger, actress and acrobatic dancer. Bellanger was falsely rumoured to be the illegitimate daughter of a hangman, and was the most universally loathed of the mistresses, though perhaps his favorite
  • Countess Louise de Mercy-Argenteau, (1837–1890), likely a platonic relationship, author of The Last Love of an Emperor, her reminiscences of her association with the emperor.

His wife, Eugenie, resisted his advances prior to marriage. She was coached by her mother and her friend, Prosper Mérimée. "What is the road to your heart?" Napoleon demanded to know. "Through the chapel, Sire", she purportedly answered. Yet, after marriage, it took not long for him to stray as Eugenie found sex with him "disgusting". It is doubtful that she allowed further approaches by her husband once she had given him an heir.

By his late forties, Napoleon started to suffer from numerous medical ailments, including kidney disease, bladder stones, chronic bladder and prostate infections, arthritis, gout, obesity, and the effects of chronic smoking. In 1856, Dr. Robert Ferguson, a consultant called from London, diagnosed a "nervous exhaustion" that had a "debilitating impact upon sexual ... performance" and reported this also to the British government.


немає місць


        Iм'я зв'язокТип відносинДата народженняДата смертіОпис
        1Napoleon  BonaparteNapoleon BonaparteДядя15.08.176905.05.1821

        28.03.1854 | Turpinās Krimas karš. Osmaņu impērijas pusē karā iesaistās Anglija un Francija

        Krimas karu pret Osmaņu impēriju Krievija iesāka 1853. gada oktobrī. Kara iesākšanas iegansts Krievija bija "ortodoksālo kristiešu aizsardzība". Karš ilga trīs gadus, līdz 1856. gada februārim. Kara rezultātā Krievija ieguva Krimas pussalu, bet zaudēja savus iepriekšējos sabiedrotos- kopš 1815. gada Vīnes kongresa laikiem- Franciju, Lielbritāniju, Sardīniju.

        Розмістити спогади

        29.04.1859 | Second Italian War of Independence begins

        Розмістити спогади

        19.07.1870 | France Declares War On Prussia

        Розмістити спогади

        17.02.1871 | Prussian Army paraded through Paris after the end of Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War

        Розмістити спогади

        10.05.1871 | Beidzās Francijas-Prūsijas karš

        Розмістити спогади

        06.05.1994 | Atklāts tunelis zem Lamanša šauruma, kas savieno Franciju un Lielbritāniju

        Lamanša tunelis (angļu: Channel Tunnel, franču: Le tunnel sous la Manche) ir 50,5 km garš dzelzceļa tunelis zem Lamanša jūras šauruma. Tas savieno Folkstoni Apvienotajā Karalistē ar Kokelu Francijā. Tā zemākais punkts ir 75 m zem jūras līmeņa.

        Розмістити спогади

        Ключові слова