Boris Yeltsin

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Борис Николаевич Ельцин
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Boriss Jeļcins, Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
Communist, Member of Parliament, Member of the CC CPSU, Member of the Government, Order of the Three Stars (Latvia), President
Novodevichy Cemetery

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: Бори́с Никола́евич Е́льцин; IPA: [bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn] ; 1 February 1931 — 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

Originally a supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin emerged under the perestroika reforms as one of Gorbachev's most powerful political opponents. On 29 May 1990 he was elected the chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet. On 12 June 1991 he was elected by popular vote to the newly created post of President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (SFSR), at that time one of the 15 constituent republics of the Soviet Union. He won 57% of the vote in a six-candidate contest and became the third democratically elected leader of Russia in history. Upon the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev and the final dissolution of the Soviet Union on 25 December 1991, Yeltsin remained in office as the President of the Russian Federation, the USSR's successor state. Yeltsin was reelected in the 1996 election; in the second round of the election Yeltsin defeated Gennady Zyuganov from the revived Communist Party by a margin of 13%. However, Yeltsin never recovered his early popularity after a series of economic and political crises in Russia in the 1990s.

He vowed to transform Russia's socialist command economy into a free market economy and implemented economic shock therapy, price liberalization and privatization programs. Due to the method of privatization, a good deal of the national wealth fell into the hands of a small group of oligarchs.Much of the Yeltsin era was marked by widespread corruption, inflation, economic collapse and enormous political and social problems that affected Russia and the other former states of the USSR. Within the first few years of his presidency, many of Yeltsin's political supporters turned against him and Vice President Alexander Rutskoy denounced the reforms as "economic genocide".

Ongoing confrontations with the Supreme Soviet climaxed in the October 1993 Russian constitutional crisis in which Yeltsin illegally ordered the dissolution of the parliament, which then attempted to remove Yeltsin from office. The military eventually sided with Yeltsin and besieged and shelled the Russian White House, resulting in the deaths of 187 people. Yeltsin then scrapped the existing constitution, temporarily banned political opposition and deepened his economic experimentation. He then introduced a new constitution with stronger presidential power and it was approved byreferendum on 12 December 1993 with 58.5% of voters in favour.

On 31 December 1999, Yeltsin made a surprise announcement of his resignation, leaving the presidency in the hands of his chosen successor, then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Yeltsin left office widely unpopular with the Russian population. By some estimates, his approval ratings when leaving office were as low as 2%.


Early life and education

Boris Yeltsin was born in the village of Butka, in Talitsky District of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian SFSR on 1 February 1931. In 1932 after the state took away the entire harvest from the recently collectivised Butka peasants the Yeltsin family moved as far away as they could, to Kazan which was over 1,100 kilometres from Butka, where Boris` father, Nikolai Yeltsin, got work on a construction site.Growing up in the rural Sverdlovsk region, he studied at the Urals Polytechnic, and began his career in the construction industry.

 In 1934 Nikolai Yeltsin was convicted of anti-Soviet agitation and sentenced to hard labour in a gulag for three years. Following his release in 1936 after serving two years, Nikolai took his family to live in Berezniki in Perm Krai where his brother Ivan a blacksmith had been exiled the year before for failing to deliver his grain quota. Nikolai remained unemployed for a period of time and then worked again in construction. His mother, Klavdiya Vasilyevna Yeltsina, worked as a seamstress.

Boris Yeltsin studied at Pushkin High School in Berezniki in Perm Krai. He was fond of sports (in particular skiing, gymnastics, volleyball, track and field, boxing and wrestling) despite losing the thumb and index finger of his left hand when he and some friends furtively entered a Red Army supply depot, stole several grenades, and tried to disassemble them.

In 1949 Yeltsin was admitted to the Ural Polytechnic Institute in Sverdlovsk, majoring in construction, and he graduated in 1955. The subject of his degree paper was "Television Tower".

From 1955 to 1957 he worked as a foreman with the building trust Uraltyazhtrubstroy. From 1957 to 1963 he worked in Sverdlovsk, and was promoted from construction site superintendent to chief of the Construction Directorate with the Yuzhgorstroy Trust. In 1963 he became chief engineer, and in 1965 head of the Sverdlovsk House-Building Combine, responsible for sewerage and technical plumbing.

He joined the ranks of the CPSU nomenklatura in 1968 when he was appointed head of construction with the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee. In 1975 he became secretary of the regional committee in charge of the region's industrial development. In 1976 the Politburo of the CPSU promoted him to the post of the first secretary of the CPSU Committee of Sverdlovsk Oblast(effectively he became the head of one of the most important industrial regions in the USSR), he remained in this position until 1985.



Communist Party membership

Yeltsin was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) from 17 March 1961 to 13 July 1990, and a nomenklatura member from 1968.

In 1977, as a party official in Sverdlovsk, Yeltsin was ordered by Moscow to destroy the Ipatiev House where the last Russian tsar had been killed by Bolshevik troops. The Ipatiev House was demolished in one night, 27 July 1977. Also during Yeltsin's time in Sverdlovsk, a CPSU palace was built which was named "White Tooth" by the residents. During this time, Yeltsin developed connections with key people in the Soviet power structure. In January 1981 Yeltsin was awarded the Order of Lenin, the Soviet Union`s highest medal, for 'the service to the Communist Party and the Soviet State and in connection with the 50th birthday'. In March 1981 Yeltsin was elected as a full member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.




On 11 March 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary of the CPSU by the Politburo after the death of Konstantin Chernenko. Gorbachev's primary goal was to revive the Soviet economy however he soon realized that fixing the Soviet economy would be nearly impossible without reforming the political and social structure of the Communist nation. To begin these reforms he immediately began gathering in Moscow a younger and more energetic governing team of Communist Party members. On 4 April 1985 Yeltsin received a call from Gorbachev's leading protege Yegor Ligachev summoning him to Moscow to take up position as Head of the Construction Department of the Party`s Central Committee. Less than three months later he was promoted to be Secretary for Construction of the Central Committee a position within the powerful CPSU Central Committee Secretariat.

On 23 December 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev appointed Yeltsin First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party effectively `Mayor' of the Soviet capital, and as a result on 18 February 1986 Yeltsin was invited to become a Candidate (ie.non-voting) Member of the Politburo . As a politburo member Yeltsin was also given a country house (dacha), his was previously occupied by Gorbachev who now moved to a much bigger and more luxurious purpose built dacha nearby. During this period Yeltsin portrayed himself as a reformer and populist (for example, he took a trolleybus to work), firing and reshuffling his staff several times. He became popular among Moscow residents for firing corrupt Moscow party officials.




On 10 September 1987, after a lecture from hard-liner Yegor Ligachev at the Politburo for allowing two small unsanctioned demonstrations on Moscow streets, Yeltsin wrote a letter of resignation to Gorbachev who was holidaying on the Black Sea. When Gorbachev received the letter he was stunned – nobody in Soviet history had voluntarily resigned from the ranks of the Politburo. Gorbachev phoned Yeltsin and asked him to reconsider.

On 27 October 1987 at the plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Yeltsin, frustrated that Gorbachev had not addressed any of the issues outlined in his resignation letter asked to speak. He expressed his discontent with both the slow pace of reform in society, the servility shown to the General Secretary, and opposition to him from Ligachev making his position untenable, before requesting to resign from the Politburo, adding that the City Committee would decide whether he should resign from the post of First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party. 

This was sensational. Besides the fact that nobody had ever quit the Politburo, no one in the party had ever had the audacity to address a leader of the party in such a manner in front of the Central Committee since Leon Trotsky in the 1920s. In his reply, Gorbachev accused Yeltsin of "political immaturity" and "absolute irresponsibility". Nobody in the Central Committee backed Yeltsin.

Within days news of Yeltsin's actions leaked and rumours of his 'secret speech' at the Central Committee spread throughout Moscow. Soon fabricated samizdat versions began to circulate – this was the beginning of Yeltsin's rise as a rebel and growth in popularity as an anti-establishment figure. Gorbachev called a meeting of the Moscow City Party Committee for the 11 November 1987 to launch another crushing attack on Yeltsin and confirm his dismissal.

On 9 November 1987, Yeltsin apparently tried to kill himself and was rushed to hospital bleeding profusely from self-inflicted cuts to his chest. Gorbachev ordered the injured Yeltsin from his hospital bed to the Moscow party plenum two days later where he was ritually denounced by the party faithful in what was reminiscent of a Stalinist show trial before he was fired from the post of First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party. Yeltsin would never forgive Gorbachev for this 'immoral and inhuman' treatment.

Yeltsin was demoted to the position of First Deputy Commissioner for the State Committee for Construction. At the next meeting of the Central Committee on 24 February 1988 Yeltsin was removed from his position as a Candidate member the Politburo. He was perturbed and humiliated but began plotting his revenge. His opportunity came with Gorbachev's establishment of the Congress of People's Deputies. He recovered, and started intensively criticizing Gorbachev, highlighting the slow pace of reform in the Soviet Union as his major argument.

Yeltsin's criticism of the Politburo and Gorbachev led to a smear campaign against him, in which examples of Yeltsin's awkward behavior were used against him. An article published in Pravdadescribed him as being drunk at a lecture during his visit to the United States, an allegation which appeared to be confirmed by a TV account of his speech. However, popular dissatisfaction with the regime was very strong, and these attempts to smear Yeltsin only added to his popularity. In another incident, Yeltsin fell from a bridge. Commenting on this event, Yeltsin hinted that he was helped to fall from the bridge by the enemies of perestroika, but his opponents suggested that he was simply drunk.

On 26 March 1989, Yeltsin was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union as the delegate from Moscow district with a hugely decisive 92% of the vote and on 29 May 1989, was elected by the Congress of People's Deputies to a seat on the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. On 19 July 1989, Yeltsin announced the formation of the radical pro-reform faction in theCongress of People's Deputies: the Inter-Regional Group of Deputies, and on 29 July 1989 was elected one of the five co-Chairman of the Inter-Regional Group.



President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Yeltsin on 21 February 1989

Yeltsin, with his personal bodyguardAlexander Korzhakov, stands on a tank to defy the August coup in 1991

On 4 March 1990, Yeltsin was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies of Russia representing Sverdlovsk with 72% of the vote. On 29 May 1990, he was elected chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), in spite of the fact that Gorbachev personally pleaded with the Russian deputies not to select Yeltsin. He was supported by both democratic and conservative members of the Supreme Soviet, which sought power in the developing political situation in the country. A part of this power struggle was the opposition between power structures of the Soviet Union and the RSFSR. In an attempt to gain more power, on 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR adopted a declaration of sovereignty. On 12 July 1990, Yeltsin resigned from the CPSU in a dramatic speech before party members at the 28th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, some of whom responded by shouting "Shame!"

On 12 June 1991, Yeltsin won 57% of the popular vote in the democratic presidential elections for the Russian republic, defeating Gorbachev's preferred candidate, Nikolai Ryzhkov who got just 16% of the vote. In his election campaign, Yeltsin criticized the "dictatorship of the center", but did not suggest the introduction of a market economy. Instead, he said that he would put his head on the railtrack in the event of increased prices. Yeltsin took office on 10 July, and reappointed Ivan Silayev as Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Government of the Russian SFSR.

On 18 August 1991, a coup against Gorbachev was launched by the government members opposed to perestroika. Gorbachev was held in Crimea while Yeltsin raced to the White House of Russia (residence of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR) in Moscow to defy the coup, making a memorable speech from atop the turret of a tank onto which he had climbed. The White House was surrounded by the military but the troops defected in the face of mass popular demonstrations. By 21 August most of the coup leaders had fled Moscow and Gorbachev was "rescued" from Crimea and then returned to Moscow. Yeltsin was subsequently hailed by his supporters around the world for rallying mass opposition to the coup.

Although restored to his position, Gorbachev had been destroyed politically. Neither union nor Russian power structures heeded his commands as support had swung over to Yeltsin. Taking advantage of the situation, Yeltsin began taking what remained of the Soviet government, ministry by ministry—including the Kremlin.

On 6 November 1991, Yeltsin issued a decree banning all Communist Party activities on Russian soil.

In early December 1991, Ukraine voted for independence from the Soviet Union. A week later, on 8 December, Yeltsin met Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk and the leader of Belarus, Stanislav Shushkevich, in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. In the Belavezha Accords, the three presidents announced the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of a voluntary Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place. According to Gorbachev, Yeltsin kept the plans of the Belovezhskaya meeting in strict secrecy and the main goal of the dissolution of the Soviet Union was to get rid of Gorbachev, who by that time had started to recover his position after the events of August. Gorbachev has also accused Yeltsin of violating the people's will expressed in the referendum in which the majority voted to keep the Soviet Union united.

On 12 December, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR ratified the Belavezha Accords and denounced the 1922 Union Treaty. It also ordered the Russian deputies in the Council of the Union to cease their work, leaving that body without a quorum. In effect, the largest republic of the Soviet Union had seceded.

In a 17 December meeting with Yeltsin, Gorbachev accepted the fait accompli and agreed to dissolve the Soviet Union. On 24 December, the Russian Federation, by mutual agreement of the other CIS states (which by this time included all of the remaining republics except Georgia) took the Soviet Union's seat in the United Nations. The next day, Gorbachev resigned and the Soviet Union ceased to exist—thereby ending the world's oldest, largest and most powerful Communist state. Economic relations between the former Soviet republics were severely compromised. Millions of ethnic Russians found themselves in the newly formed foreign countries.


Yeltsin's first term

Radical reforms Just days after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin resolved to embark on a program of radical economic reform, with the aim of restructuring Russia's economic system—converting the world's largest command economy into a free-market one. During early discussions of this transition, Yeltsin's advisers debated issues of speed and sequencing, with an apparent division between those favoring a rapid approach and those favoring a gradual or slower approach.

Most of Yeltsin's time as president was plagued by economic contraction.

In late 1991 Yeltsin turned to the advice of Western economists, and Western institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the U.S. Treasury Department, who had developed a standard policy recipe for transition economies in the late 1980s. This policy recipe came to be known as the "Washington Consensus" or "shock therapy", a combination of measures intended to liberalize prices and stabilize the state's budget. Such measures had been attempted in Poland, and advocates of "shock therapy" thought that the same could be done in Russia. Some Russian policymakers were skeptical that this was the way to go, but the approach was favored by Yeltsin's deputy, Yegor Gaidar, a 35-year-old Russian economist inclined toward radical reform.

On 2 January 1992, Yeltsin, acting as his own prime minister, ordered the liberalization of foreign trade, prices, and currency. At the same time, Yeltsin followed a policy of 'macroeconomic stabilization,' a harsh austerity regime designed to control inflation. Under Yeltsin's stabilization program, interest rates were raised to extremely high levels to tighten money and restrict credit. To bring state spending and revenues into balance, Yeltsin raised new taxes heavily, cut back sharply on government subsidies to industry and construction, and made steep cuts to state welfare spending.

In early 1992, prices skyrocketed throughout Russia, and a deep credit crunch shut down many industries and brought about a protracted depression. The reforms devastated the living standards of much of the population, especially the groups dependent on Soviet-era state subsidies and welfare entitlement programs. Through the 1990s, Russia's GDP fell by 50 percent, vast sectors of the economy were wiped out, inequality and unemployment grew dramatically, while incomes fell. Hyperinflation, caused by the Central Bank of Russia's loose monetary policy, wiped out a lot of personal savings, and tens of millions of Russians were plunged into poverty.

Some economists argue that in the 1990s Russia suffered an economic downturn more severe than the United States or Germany had undergone six decades earlier in the Great Depression. Russian commentators and even some Western economists, such as Marshall Goldman, widely blamed Yeltsin's Western-backed economic program for the country's disastrous economic performance in the 1990s. Many politicians began to quickly distance themselves from the program. In February 1992, Russia's vice president, Alexander Rutskoy denounced the Yeltsin program as "economic genocide." By 1993 conflict over the reform direction escalated between Yeltsin on the one side, and the opposition to radical economic reform in Russia's parliament on the other.


Confrontation with parliament

Also throughout 1992, Yeltsin wrestled with the Supreme Soviet of Russia and the Congress of People's Deputies for control over government, government policy, government banking and property. In the course of 1992, the speaker of the Russian Supreme Soviet, Ruslan Khasbulatov, came out in opposition to the reforms, despite claiming to support Yeltsin's overall goals.

In December 1992, the 7th Congress of People's Deputies succeeded in turning down the Yeltsin-backed candidacy of Yegor Gaidar for the position of Russian prime minister. An agreement was brokered by Valery Zorkin, chairman of the Constitutional Court, which included the following provisions: a national referendum on the new constitution; parliament and Yeltsin would choose a new head of government, to be confirmed by the Supreme Soviet; and the parliament was to cease making constitutional amendments that change the balance of power between the legislative and executive branches. Eventually, on 14 December, Viktor Chernomyrdin, widely seen as a compromise figure, was confirmed in the office.

The conflict escalated soon, however, with the parliament changing its prior decision to hold a referendum. Yeltsin, in his turn, announced in a televised address to the nation on 20 March 1993, that he was going to assume certain "special powers" in order to implement his program of reforms. In response, the hastily called 9th Congress of People's Deputies attempted to remove Yeltsin from presidency through impeachment on 26 March 1993. Yeltsin's opponents gathered more than 600 votes for impeachment, but fell 72 votes short of the required two-thirds majority.

President Yeltsin with US Presiden tGeorge H. W. Bush, 1 June 1992

During the summer of 1993, a situation of dual power developed in Russia. Since July, two separate administrations of the Chelyabinsk Oblast functioned side by side, after Yeltsin refused to accept the newly elected pro-parliament head of the region. The Supreme Soviet pursued its own foreign policies, passing a declaration on the status of Sevastopol.

In August, a commentator reflected on the situation as follows: "The President issues decrees as if there were no Supreme Soviet, and the Supreme Soviet suspends decrees as if there were no President." (Izvestiya, 13 August 1993).

On 21 September 1993 Yeltsin announced in a televised address his decision to disband the Supreme Soviet and Congress of People's Deputies by decree.

In his address Yeltsin declared his intent to rule by decree until the election of the new parliament and a referendum on a new constitution, triggering the constitutional crisis of October 1993. On the night after Yeltsin's televised address, the Supreme Soviet declared Yeltsin removed from presidency, by virtue of his breaching the constitution, and Vice-President Alexander Rutskoy was sworn in as the acting president.

Between 21–24 September Yeltsin was confronted by significant popular unrest, encouraging the defenders of the parliament. Moscow saw what amounted to a spontaneous mass uprising of anti-Yeltsin demonstrators numbering in the tens of thousands marching in the streets resolutely seeking to aid forces defending the parliament building. The demonstrators were protesting the new and terrible living conditions under Yeltsin. Since 1989 GDP had declined by half. Corruption was rampant, violent crime was skyrocketing, medical services were collapsing, food and fuel were increasingly scarce and life expectancy was falling for all but a tiny handful of the population; moreover, Yeltsin was increasingly getting the blame.

By early October, Yeltsin had secured the support of Russia's army and ministry of interior forces. In a massive show of force, Yeltsin called up tanks to shell the Russian White House, Russia's parliament building. .

As Supreme Soviet was dissolved, in December 1993 elections to the newly established parliament, the State Duma, were held. Candidates associated with Yeltsin's economic policies were overwhelmed by a huge anti-Yeltsin vote, the bulk of which was divided between the Communist Party and ultra-nationalists. The referendum, however, held at the same time, approved the new constitution, which significantly expanded the powers of the president, giving Yeltsin a right to appoint the members of the government, to dismiss the prime minister and, in some cases, to dissolve the Duma.



In December 1994, Yeltsin ordered the military invasion of Chechnya in an attempt to restore Moscow's control over the republic. Nearly two years later Yeltsin withdrew federal forces from the devastated Chechnya under a 1996 peace agreement brokered by Alexander Lebed, then Yeltsin's security chief. The peace deal allowed Chechnya greater autonomy but not full independence.

The decision to launch the war in Chechnya dismayed many in the West. TIME magazine wrote:

"Then, what was to be made of Boris Yeltsin? Clearly he could no longer be regarded as the democratic hero of Western myth. But had he become an old- style communist boss, turning his back on the democratic reformers he once championed and throwing in his lot with militarists and ultranationalists? Or was he a befuddled, out-of-touch chief being manipulated, knowingly or unwittingly, by– well, by whom exactly? If there was to be a dictatorial coup, would Yeltsin be its victim or its leader?"


Privatization and the rise of "the oligarchs" Main article: Privatization in Russia

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yeltsin promoted privatization as a way of spreading ownership of shares in former state enterprises as widely as possible to create political support for his economic reforms. In the West, privatization was viewed as the key to the transition from Communism in Eastern Europe, ensuring a quick dismantling of the Soviet-era command economy to make way for 'free market reforms.' In the early 1990s, Anatoly Chubais, Yeltsin's deputy for economic policy, emerged as a leading advocate of privatization in Russia.

In late 1992, Yeltsin launched a program of free vouchers as a way to give mass privatization a jump-start. Under the program, all Russian citizens were issued vouchers, each with a nominal value of around 10,000 rubles, for purchase of shares of select state enterprises. Although each citizen initially received a voucher of equal face value, within months most of them converged in the hands of intermediaries who were ready to buy them for cash right away.

In 1995, as Yeltsin struggled to finance Russia's growing foreign debt and gain support from the Russian business elite for his bid in the early-1996 presidential elections, the Russian president prepared for a new wave of privatization offering stock shares in some of Russia's most valuable state enterprises in exchange for bank loans. The program was promoted as a way of simultaneously speeding up privatization and ensuring the government a much-needed infusion of cash for its operating needs.

However, the deals were effectively giveaways of valuable state assets to a small group of tycoons in finance, industry, energy, telecommunications, and the media who came to be known as "oligarchs" in the mid-1990s. This was due to the fact that ordinary people sold their vouchers for cash. The vouchers were bought out by a small group of investors. By mid-1996, substantial ownership shares over major firms were acquired at very low prices by a handful of people. Boris Berezovsky, who controlled major stakes in several banks and the national media, emerged as one of Yeltsin's most prominent backers. Along with Berezovsky, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Vladimir Potanin, Vladimir Bogdanov, Rem Viakhirev, Vagit Alekperov, Alexander Smolensky, Victor Vekselberg,Mikhail Fridman and a few years later Roman Abramovich, were habitually mentioned in the media as Russia's oligarchs.


Yeltsin's second term

Yeltsin underwent an emergency quintuple heart bypass surgery and remained in the hospital for months.

During Yeltsin's presidency, Russia received US$ 40 billion in funds from the International Monetary Fund and other international lending organizations. However, his opponents allege that most of these funds were stolen by people from Yeltsin's circle and placed in foreign banks.

In 1998, a political and economic crisis emerged when Yeltsin's government defaulted on its debts, causing financial markets to panic and the ruble to collapse in the 1998 financial crisis.

During the 1999 Kosovo war, Yeltsin strongly opposed the NATO military campaign against Yugoslavia, and warned of possible Russian intervention if NATO deployed ground troops to Kosovo. In televised comments he stated: "I told NATO, the Americans, the Germans: Don't push us toward military action. Otherwise there will be a European war for sure and possibly world war."

Yeltsin on the day of his resignation, together with Putin and Alexander Voloshin

On 15 May 1999, Yeltsin survived another attempt of impeachment, this time by the democratic and communist opposition in the State Duma. He was charged with several unconstitutional activities, including the signing of the Belavezha Accords dissolving the Soviet Union in December 1991, the coup-d'état in October 1993, and initiating the war in Chechnya in 1994. None of these charges received the two-thirds majority of the Duma which was required to initiate the process of impeachment of the president.

On 9 August 1999 Yeltsin fired his prime minister, Sergei Stepashin, and for the fourth time, fired his entire cabinet. In Stepashin's place he appointed Vladimir Putin, relatively unknown at that time, and announced his wish to see Putin as his successor.

In late 1999 Yeltsin and President Clinton openly disagreed on the war in Chechnya. At the November meeting of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Clinton pointed his finger at Yeltsin and demanded he halt bombing attacks that had resulted in many civilian casualties. Yeltsin immediately left the conference.

In December while visiting China to seek support on Chechnya, Yeltsin replied to Clinton’s criticism of a Russian ultimatum to citizens of Grozny. He bluntly pronounced: "Yesterday, Clinton permitted himself to put pressure on Russia. It seems he has for a minute, for a second, for half a minute, forgotten that Russia has a full arsenal of nuclear weapons. He has forgotten about that." Clinton dismissed Yeltsin's comments stating: "I didn't think he'd forgotten that America was a great power when he disagreed with what I did in Kosovo." It fell to Vladimir Putin to downplay Yeltsin's comments and present reassurances about U.S. and Russian relations.



Yeltsin appearing on TV announcing his resignation on 31 December 1999.

On 31 December 1999, in a surprise announcement aired at 12:00 (at noon) MSK on Russian television and taped in the morning of the same day, Yeltsin said he had resigned and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin had taken over as acting president, with elections due to take place on 26 March 2000. Yeltsin asked for forgiveness for what he acknowledged were errors of his rule, and said Russia needed to enter the new century with new political leaders. Yeltsin said: "I want to beg forgiveness for your dreams that never came true. And also I would like to beg forgiveness not to have justified your hopes."



Life after resignation

Yeltsin with Naina Yeltsina on his 75th birthday on 1 February 2006.

Yeltsin maintained a low profile after his resignation, making almost no public statements or appearances. However, on 13 September 2004, following the Beslan school hostage crisis and nearly concurrent terrorist attacks in Moscow, Putin launched an initiative to replace the election of regional governors with a system whereby they would be directly appointed by the president and approved by regional legislatures. Yeltsin, together with Mikhail Gorbachev, publicly criticized Putin's plan as a step away from democracy in Russia and a return to the centrally run political apparatus of the Soviet era.

In September 2005, Yeltsin underwent a hip operation in Moscow after breaking his femur in a fall while vacationing on the Italian island of Sardinia.

On 1 February 2006, Yeltsin celebrated his 75th birthday. He used this occasion as an opportunity to criticize a "monopolistic" U.S. foreign policy, and to state that Vladimir Putin was the right choice for Russia. He also disputed accusations of corruption.




Funeral of Yeltsin on 25 April 2007.

Boris Yeltsin died of congestive heart failure on 23 April 2007 at the age of 76. According to experts quoted by Komsomolskaya Pravda, the onset of Yeltsin's condition was due to his visit to Jordan between 25 March and 2 April. He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery on 25 April 2007, following a period during which his body had lain in state in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.

Yeltsin was the first Russian head of state in 113 years to be buried in a church ceremony, after Emperor Alexander III. He was also the first leader in Russian and Soviet history to die quietly in retirement having overseen a peaceful transfer to his successor.

President Putin declared the day of his funeral a national day of mourning, with the nation's flags flown at half mast and all entertainment programs suspended for the day.

Yeltsin is survived by his wife, Naina Iosifovna Yeltsina, whom he married in 1956, and their two daughters Yelena and Tatyana, born in 1957 and 1959, respectively.

Russian president Vladimir Putin said, declaring 25 April 2007 a day of national mourning, that:

"[Yeltsin's] presidency has inscribed him forever in Russian and in world history. ... A new democratic Russia was born during his time: a free, open and peaceful country. A state in which the power truly does belong to the people. ... the first President of Russia’s strength consisted in the mass support of Russian citizens for his ideas and aspirations. Thanks to the will and direct initiative of President Boris Yeltsin a new constitution, one which declared human rights a supreme value, was adopted. It gave people the opportunity to freely express their thoughts, to freely choose power in Russia, to realise their creative and entrepreneurial plans.

This Constitution permitted us to begin building a truly effective Federation. ... We knew him as a brave and a warm-hearted, spiritual person. He was an upstanding and courageous national leader. And he was always very honest and frank while defending his position. ... [Yeltsin] assumed full responsibility for everything he called for, for everything he aspired to. For everything he tried to do and did do for the sake of Russia, for the sake of millions of Russians. And he invariably took upon himself, let it in his heart, all the trials and tribulations of Russia, peoples’ difficulties and problems."

Shortly after the news broke, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev issued a statement, saying:

"I offer my deepest condolences to the family of a man on whose shoulders rested many great deeds for the good of the country and serious mistakes—a tragic fate".



Statue of Yeltsin in Yekaterinburg

Monument to Yeltsin in Novodevichy cemetery

In April 2008, a new memorial to Yeltsin was dedicated in Moscow's Novodevichy cemetery, to mixed reactions. At the memorial service, a military chorus performed Russia's national anthem — an anthem that was changed shortly after the end of Yeltsin's term, to follow the music of the old Soviet anthem, with lyrics reflecting Russia's new status.

Source: wikipedia.org, news.lv


        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Николай ЕльцинНиколай ЕльцинFather27.06.190630.05.1977
        2Клавдия ЕльцинаКлавдия ЕльцинаMother00.00.190800.00.1993
        Игнатий ЕльцинGrandfather00.00.187500.00.1936
        Анна ЕльцинаGrandmother00.00.188700.00.1941
        5Mikhail  ZadornovMikhail ZadornovFriend21.07.194810.11.2017
        6Михаил ШатровМихаил ШатровFriend03.04.193223.05.2010
        7Евгений  ТяжельниковЕвгений ТяжельниковCoworker07.01.192815.12.2020
        8Борис  ПастуховБорис ПастуховCoworker10.10.193319.01.2021
        9Yevgeny  ShaposhnikovYevgeny ShaposhnikovCoworker03.02.194208.12.2020
        10Vadims  BakatinsVadims BakatinsCoworker06.11.193731.07.2022
        11Сергей  КириенкоСергей КириенкоCoworker26.07.1962
        12Mikhail  GorbachevMikhail GorbachevCoworker02.03.193130.08.2022
        13Евгений ЯсинЕвгений ЯсинCoworker07.05.193425.09.2023
        14Виктор ШейнисВиктор ШейнисCoworker16.02.193125.06.2023
        15Евгений КрестьяниновЕвгений КрестьяниновCoworker12.07.194821.05.2023
        16Yury  VlasovYury VlasovCoworker05.12.193513.02.2021
        17Eduard  ShevardnadzeEduard ShevardnadzeCoworker, Familiar, Idea mate25.01.192807.07.2014
        18Weniamin  JakowlewWeniamin JakowlewCoworker12.02.193224.07.2018
        19Vladimirs KrjučkovsVladimirs KrjučkovsCoworker29.02.192423.11.2007
        20Igor  RodionovIgor RodionovCoworker01.12.193619.12.2014
        21Борис ИсаевБорис ИсаевCoworker18.06.193502.10.2004
        22Иван  УстиновИван УстиновCoworker01.01.192016.01.2020
        23Alexander YakovlevAlexander YakovlevCoworker, Partymate02.12.192318.10.2005
        24Евгений ТкаченкоЕвгений ТкаченкоCoworker21.03.193501.04.2018
        25Юрий  ПетровЮрий ПетровCoworker18.01.193924.10.2013
        26Анатолий ТрофимовАнатолий ТрофимовCoworker01.06.194010.04.2005
        27Alexander  BovinAlexander BovinCoworker09.08.193029.04.2004
        28Владимир ЛопухинВладимир ЛопухинCoworker23.05.195226.05.2020
        29Евгений СабуровЕвгений СабуровCoworker13.02.194620.06.2009
        30Gennadiy  SeleznyovGennadiy SeleznyovCoworker, Opponent06.11.194719.07.2015
        31Олег МироновОлег МироновCoworker05.06.193901.09.2020
        32Александр ЗаверюхаАлександр ЗаверюхаCoworker30.04.194021.03.2015
        33Олег ЛобовОлег ЛобовCoworker07.09.193706.09.2018
        34Константин ПетровКонстантин ПетровCoworker23.08.194521.07.2009
        35Валерий МахарадзеВалерий МахарадзеCoworker00.00.194015.11.2008
        36Boris  NemtsovBoris NemtsovCoworker09.10.195927.02.2015
        37Galina StarovoytovaGalina StarovoytovaCoworker17.05.194620.11.1998
        38Владимир ХубиевВладимир ХубиевCoworker26.03.193217.03.2004
        39Николай МироновНиколай МироновCoworker08.05.193630.01.1999
        40Егор  ЯковлевЕгор ЯковлевCoworker14.03.193018.09.2005
        41Georgy ArbatovGeorgy ArbatovCoworker19.05.192301.10.2010
        42Viktor ChernomyrdinViktor ChernomyrdinCoworker09.04.193803.11.2010
        43Игорь СергеевИгорь СергеевCoworker20.04.193810.11.2006
        44Виктор МихайловВиктор МихайловCoworker12.02.193425.06.2011
        45Георгий РогозинГеоргий РогозинCoworker07.08.194206.03.2014
        46Mikhail LesinMikhail LesinCoworker11.06.195805.11.2015
        47Петр ДейнекинПетр ДейнекинCoworker14.12.193719.08.2017
        48Юрий СкоковЮрий СкоковCoworker20.06.193805.02.2013
        49Владимир  ДолгихВладимир ДолгихCoworker05.12.192408.10.2020
        50Константин КобецКонстантин КобецCoworker16.07.193930.12.2012
        51Yury  LuzhkovYury LuzhkovCoworker21.09.193610.12.2019
        52Jakow  RiabowJakow RiabowCoworker24.03.192817.04.2018
        53Viktor  YerinViktor YerinCoworker17.01.194420.03.2018
        54Vlad ListyevVlad ListyevFamiliar10.05.195601.03.1995
        55Viktor  BarannikovViktor BarannikovFamiliar20.10.194021.07.1995
        56Otto  LatsisOtto LatsisFamiliar22.06.193403.11.2005
        57Ludmila  SenchinaLudmila SenchinaFamiliar13.12.195025.01.2018
        58Жорес АлферовЖорес АлферовFamiliar15.03.193001.03.2019
        59Philipp  BobkovPhilipp BobkovFamiliar01.12.192517.06.2019
        60Elina  BystritskayaElina BystritskayaFamiliar04.04.192826.04.2019
        61Игорь МалашенкоИгорь МалашенкоFamiliar02.10.195425.02.2019
        62Barbara BushBarbara BushFamiliar08.06.192517.04.2018
        63Леонид КравченкоЛеонид КравченкоFamiliar10.05.193802.07.2018
        64Otari  KvantrishviliOtari KvantrishviliFamiliar27.01.194805.04.1994
        65Ivans  KivelidiIvans KivelidiFamiliar18.03.194904.08.1995
        66Grigory RomanovGrigory RomanovFamiliar07.02.192303.06.2008
        67Nikolai   KovalyovNikolai KovalyovFamiliar06.08.194905.04.2019
        68Leonid  AbalkinLeonid AbalkinFamiliar05.05.193002.05.2011
        69Aleksey  LebedAleksey LebedFamiliar14.04.195527.04.2019
        70Václav   HavelVáclav HavelFamiliar05.10.193618.12.2011
        71Alexey  KazannikAlexey KazannikFamiliar26.07.194102.06.2019
        72Ксения  ПономарёваКсения ПономарёваFamiliar19.09.196115.08.2016
        73Kofi AnnanKofi AnnanFamiliar08.04.193818.08.2018
        74Stanislav  GovorukhinStanislav GovorukhinFamiliar29.03.193614.06.2018
        75Патриарх Алексий IIПатриарх Алексий IIFamiliar23.02.192905.12.2008
        76Viktor   AnpilovViktor AnpilovFamiliar02.10.194515.01.2018
        77Георгий ГабунияГеоргий ГабунияFamiliar06.09.195222.01.2000
        78Helmut  KohlHelmut KohlFamiliar03.04.193016.06.2017
        79Майкл ДебейкиМайкл ДебейкиFamiliar07.09.190811.07.2008
        80Валерий РадчиковВалерий РадчиковFamiliar22.06.195631.01.2001
        81Борис НоткинБорис НоткинFamiliar13.08.194211.11.2017
        82Александр ВенгеровскийАлександр ВенгеровскийFamiliar01.04.195329.04.2012
        83Jacob BrandJacob BrandFamiliar20.05.195512.06.2018
        84Джозеф БайерлиДжозеф БайерлиFamiliar25.08.192312.12.2004
        85Viktor IlyukhinViktor IlyukhinFamiliar, Opponent01.03.194919.03.2011
        86Сергей ЮшенковСергей ЮшенковFamiliar27.06.195017.04.2003
        87Boutros Boutros-GhaliBoutros Boutros-GhaliFamiliar14.11.192216.02.2016
        89Леонид ДоренкоЛеонид ДоренкоFamiliar00.00.193614.02.2014
        91Виктор МанюхинВиктор МанюхинFamiliar10.10.193430.06.2014
        92Олег НепомнящийОлег НепомнящийFamiliar04.01.193928.08.2016
        93Борис ФедоровБорис ФедоровFamiliar13.02.195819.11.2008
        94Яков ЛондонЯков ЛондонFamiliar13.04.196429.07.2018
        95Alexander  VlasovAlexander VlasovFamiliar20.01.193209.06.2002
        96Николай ЕгоровНиколай ЕгоровFamiliar03.05.195125.04.1997
        97Lyudmila ZykinaLyudmila ZykinaFamiliar10.06.192901.07.2009
        98Абульфаз ЭльчибейАбульфаз ЭльчибейFamiliar24.06.193822.08.2000
        99Artyom  TarasovArtyom TarasovFamiliar04.07.195022.07.2017
        100Василий ДьяконовВасилий ДьяконовFamiliar25.07.194605.09.2012
        101Михаил  ДаниловМихаил ДаниловFamiliar29.04.193710.10.1994
        102Николай КондратенкоНиколай КондратенкоFamiliar16.02.194023.11.2013
        103Борис  АристовБорис АристовFamiliar13.09.192527.11.2018
        104Василий ШандыбинВасилий ШандыбинFamiliar25.07.194130.12.2009
        105George BushGeorge BushFamiliar12.06.192430.11.2018
        106Владимир ГоловлевВладимир ГоловлевFamiliar11.05.195721.08.2002
        107Vitaly  ShlykovVitaly ShlykovFamiliar04.02.193419.11.2011
        108Андрей ЧеркизовАндрей ЧеркизовFamiliar01.04.195414.01.2007
        109Mikhail  KolesnikovMikhail KolesnikovFamiliar30.06.193926.03.2007
        110Владимир МашицВладимир МашицFamiliar18.04.195328.05.2019
        111Natalya  GundarevaNatalya GundarevaFamiliar28.08.194815.05.2005
        112Александр ТиткинАлександр ТиткинFamiliar12.09.194812.09.1999
        113Iosif KobzonIosif KobzonFamiliar11.09.193730.08.2018
        114Paul Edward  TatumPaul Edward TatumFamiliar02.04.195503.11.1996
        115Nikolai  KarachentsovNikolai KarachentsovFamiliar27.10.194426.10.2018
        116Valentīna TolkunovaValentīna TolkunovaFamiliar12.07.194622.03.2010
        117Евгений   ОсинЕвгений ОсинFamiliar04.10.196417.11.2018
        118Дмитрий ЗапольскийДмитрий ЗапольскийFamiliar31.01.195808.08.2021
        119Ирина ЯковлеваИрина ЯковлеваFamiliar06.01.194524.11.2014
        120Сакина ШаймиеваСакина ШаймиеваFamiliar23.08.193916.11.2018
        121Jacques ChiracJacques ChiracFamiliar29.11.193226.09.2019
        122Владимир  ЗавершинскийВладимир ЗавершинскийFamiliar24.11.194923.09.2019
        123Юрий ГладковЮрий ГладковFamiliar22.01.194906.10.2007
        124Виктор АфанасьевВиктор АфанасьевFamiliar18.11.192210.04.1994
        125Sergei MavrodiSergei MavrodiFamiliar11.08.195526.03.2018
        126Vladimir BukovskyVladimir BukovskyFamiliar30.12.194227.10.2019
        127Ватанар ЯгьяВатанар ЯгьяFamiliar18.09.193817.06.2020
        128Pavel  SheremetPavel SheremetFamiliar28.11.197120.07.2016
        129Geydar  DzhemalGeydar DzhemalFamiliar06.11.194705.12.2016
        130Sergey  ZakharovSergey ZakharovFamiliar01.05.195014.02.2019
        131Yuriy AbramochkinYuriy AbramochkinFamiliar11.12.193605.04.2018
        132Евгений БушминЕвгений БушминFamiliar04.10.195806.10.2019
        133Saparmurats NijazovsSaparmurats NijazovsFamiliar19.02.194021.12.2006
        134Alexei  LeonovAlexei LeonovFamiliar30.05.193411.10.2019
        135Сергей  БлаговолинСергей БлаговолинFamiliar22.08.193913.09.2001
        136Станислав МеркурьевСтанислав МеркурьевFamiliar28.04.194518.05.1993
        137Евгений КузнецовЕвгений КузнецовFamiliar27.12.193803.11.2005
        138Nikolay  GlushkovNikolay GlushkovFamiliar24.12.194913.03.2018
        139Андрей КозловАндрей КозловFamiliar06.01.196514.09.2006
        140Юрий ЗахаренкоЮрий ЗахаренкоFamiliar01.01.195207.05.1999
        141Анатолий КрасовскийАнатолий КрасовскийFamiliar07.05.195216.09.1999
        142Евгений КрылатовЕвгений КрылатовFamiliar23.02.193408.05.2019
        143Виктор ГончарВиктор ГончарFamiliar07.09.195816.09.1999
        144Магомет ТекеевМагомет ТекеевFamiliar12.02.196212.05.2018
        145Mike  MooreMike MooreFamiliar28.01.194902.02.2020
        146József Antall Jr.József Antall Jr.Familiar08.04.193212.12.1993
        147Сергей ПесковСергей ПесковFamiliar24.05.194827.05.2014
        148Дмитрий ЗавадскийДмитрий ЗавадскийFamiliar28.08.197209.07.2000
        149Лев ЗайковЛев ЗайковFamiliar03.04.192307.01.2002
        150Иван СкляровИван СкляровFamiliar22.06.194826.02.2007
        151Martti AhtisaariMartti AhtisaariFamiliar23.06.193716.10.2023
        152Анатолий ДобряковАнатолий ДобряковFamiliar23.02.193912.05.2003
        153Yevgeniy  ChazovYevgeniy ChazovFamiliar10.06.192912.11.2021
        154Wladimir  SchirinowskiWladimir SchirinowskiFamiliar25.04.194606.04.2022
        155Борис ПолуяхтовБорис ПолуяхтовFamiliar16.09.193420.08.2014
        156Александр  ГентелевАлександр ГентелевFamiliar06.11.195902.04.2019
        157Геннадий МеркуловГеннадий МеркуловFamiliar12.05.194014.05.2015
        158Игорь ЕсиповскийИгорь ЕсиповскийFamiliar28.03.196010.05.2009
        159Игорь ФархутдиновИгорь ФархутдиновFamiliar16.04.195020.08.2003
        160Eduard  LimonovEduard LimonovFamiliar22.02.194317.03.2020
        161Юрий БондаревЮрий БондаревFamiliar15.03.192429.03.2020
        162Алексей ЯблоковАлексей ЯблоковFamiliar03.10.193310.01.2017
        163Владимир СагановВладимир СагановFamiliar07.03.193624.09.1999
        164Валерий КоковВалерий КоковFamiliar18.10.194129.10.2005
        165Эдуард СагалаевЭдуард СагалаевFamiliar03.10.194613.05.2023
        166Silvio BerlusconiSilvio BerlusconiFamiliar26.09.193612.06.2023
        167Аркадий ВепревАркадий ВепревFamiliar29.10.192723.07.2006
        168Сергей ТерещенкоСергей ТерещенкоFamiliar30.03.195110.02.2023
        169Дмитрий ФилипповДмитрий ФилипповFamiliar01.08.194413.10.1998
        170Hosni  MubarakHosni MubarakFamiliar04.05.192825.02.2020
        171Валентин ЦветковВалентин ЦветковFamiliar27.08.194818.10.2002
        172Tariq  AzizTariq AzizFamiliar28.04.193605.06.2015
        173Виктор ШершуновВиктор ШершуновFamiliar16.11.195020.09.2007
        174Хавьер ПересХавьер ПересFamiliar19.01.192004.03.2020
        175Анатолий ГужвинАнатолий ГужвинFamiliar25.03.194617.08.2004
        176Виталий МухаВиталий МухаFamiliar17.05.193622.05.2005
        177Лев БашмаковЛев БашмаковFamiliar26.02.193830.12.2018
        178Александр ТизяковАлександр ТизяковFamiliar10.12.192625.01.2019
        179Лев БаяндинЛев БаяндинFamiliar02.01.194214.02.2018
        Григорий БелодедFamiliar00.00.194628.04.2020
        181Сергей ЛеушкинСергей ЛеушкинFamiliar09.10.195020.04.2008
        182Григорий БелодедГригорий БелодедFamiliar00.00.194628.04.2020
        183Алексей ГоловковАлексей ГоловковFamiliar31.05.195607.01.2009
        184Николай ГрибачевНиколай ГрибачевFamiliar19.12.191010.03.1992
        185Валерий ЗубовВалерий ЗубовFamiliar09.05.195327.04.2016
        186Юрий ЛяшкоЮрий ЛяшкоFamiliar22.04.194307.03.2015
        187Александр СуратАлександр СуратFamiliar12.10.194702.09.2016
        188Михаил НаролинМихаил НаролинFamiliar19.10.193321.01.2011
        189Анатолий ТяжловАнатолий ТяжловFamiliar11.10.194228.07.2008
        190Михаил НаролинМихаил НаролинFamiliar19.10.193321.01.2011
        191Владимир ВиноградовВладимир ВиноградовFamiliar19.10.195529.06.2008
        192Владимир  МусаэльянВладимир МусаэльянFamiliar08.07.193928.09.2020
        193Владимир СергеенковВладимир СергеенковFamiliar05.12.193827.09.2014
        194Владислав ТихомировВладислав ТихомировFamiliar14.08.193919.06.2017
        195Анатолий БелоноговАнатолий БелоноговFamiliar24.02.193907.09.2019
        196Иван ШабунинИван ШабунинFamiliar09.10.193520.09.2006
        197Адольф ЛаптевАдольф ЛаптевFamiliar18.11.193516.11.2005
        198Андрей ВоробьевАндрей ВоробьевFamiliar01.11.192815.06.2020
        199Юрий ВласовЮрий ВласовFamiliar22.06.196109.01.2019
        200Anatolijs JefremovsAnatolijs JefremovsFamiliar30.01.195213.10.2009
        201Николай НикитинНиколай НикитинFamiliar00.00.193330.03.2013
        202Леонид ГорбенкоЛеонид ГорбенкоFamiliar20.06.193907.08.2010
        203Vyacheslav  TrubnikovVyacheslav TrubnikovFamiliar25.04.194418.04.2022
        204Александр ДерягинАлександр ДерягинFamiliar19.02.194116.07.2010
        205Михаил МонастырскийМихаил МонастырскийFamiliar10.11.194518.04.2007
        206Борис  ТарасовБорис ТарасовFamiliar10.08.195205.07.2013
        207Anatoly  LysenkoAnatoly LysenkoFamiliar, Idea mate14.04.193720.06.2021
        208Anna PolitkovskayaAnna PolitkovskayaFamiliar30.08.195807.10.2006
        209Oleg  TabakovOleg TabakovFamiliar17.08.193512.03.2018
        210Aleksandr   SuhharevAleksandr SuhharevFamiliar11.10.192307.03.2021
        211Владимир ЛеончевВладимир ЛеончевFamiliar18.10.194631.12.2009
        212Вячеслав  КебичВячеслав КебичFamiliar10.07.193609.12.2020
        213Barbara WaltersBarbara WaltersFamiliar25.09.192930.12.2022
        214Lennart MeriLennart MeriFamiliar29.03.192914.03.2006
        215Елена ДикунЕлена ДикунFamiliar02.08.196209.10.2020
        216Феликс  ГромовФеликс ГромовEmployee29.08.193722.01.2021
        217Александр ЛившицАлександр ЛившицEmployee06.09.194626.04.2013
        218Gleb PavlovskijGleb PavlovskijEmployee05.03.195126.02.2023
        219Yevgeny PrimakovYevgeny PrimakovEmployee, Partymate29.10.192926.06.2015
        220Rem ViakhirevRem ViakhirevEmployee23.08.193411.02.2013
        221Boris BerezovskyBoris BerezovskyEmployee23.01.194623.03.2013
        222Boris  PugoBoris PugoPartymate19.02.193722.08.1991
        223Ruslan HasbulatovRuslan HasbulatovIdea mate, Opponent22.11.194203.01.2023
        224Valeriya  NovodvorskayaValeriya NovodvorskayaIdea mate17.05.195012.07.2014
        225Viktor  IvanenkoViktor IvanenkoIdea mate19.09.194701.01.2023
        226Фёдор БурлацкийФёдор БурлацкийIdea mate04.01.192726.02.2014
        227Anatoly SobchakAnatoly SobchakIdea mate10.08.193720.02.2000
        228Aleksandr LebiedAleksandr LebiedIdea mate20.04.195028.04.2002
        229Gennady  BurbulisGennady BurbulisIdea mate04.08.194519.06.2022
        230Станислав  ШушкевичСтанислав ШушкевичIdea mate15.12.193403.05.2022
        231Juri AfanassjewJuri AfanassjewIdea mate05.09.193414.09.2015
        232Mircea SnegurMircea SnegurIdea mate17.01.194014.09.2023
        233Витторио ДзуккониВитторио ДзуккониOpponent16.08.194426.05.2019
        234Мурат АхеджакМурат АхеджакOpponent18.07.196207.12.2010
        235Sergejs  DorenkoSergejs DorenkoOpponent18.10.195909.05.2019
        236Anatoly I LukyanovAnatoly I LukyanovOpponent07.05.193009.01.2019
        237Лев РохлинЛев РохлинOpponent06.06.194703.07.1998
        238Valentin  VarennikovValentin VarennikovOpponent15.12.192306.05.2009
        239Margot HoneckerMargot HoneckerOpponent17.04.192706.05.2016
        240Dzhokhar  DudaevDzhokhar DudaevOpponent15.02.194421.04.1996
        241Yegor Timurovich GaidarYegor Timurovich GaidarSuccessor19.03.195616.12.2009

        15.11.1982 | Ilggadīgā PSRS Kompartijas vadītāja L. Brežņeva bēres

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        14.11.1986 | Ограбление универмага «Молодёжный» - крупнейшее в истории СССР нападение на инкассаторов

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        01.07.1988 | На XIX партконференции Е. Лигачев сказал Б. Ельцину историческую фразу: «Борис, ты не прав!».

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        07.06.1989 | Создана Межрегиональная депутатская группа народных депутатов СССР

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        04.11.1989 | Vācu atmoda. Pēc pāris dienām mūris drūp

        Masu demonstrācija par demokrātiju. 500,000 demonstrantu Berlīnē.

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        09.11.1989 | Krīt Berlīnes mūris

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        03.12.1989 | "Aukstā kara" beigas

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        11.03.1990 | Lietuva paskelbė atkurianti visišką valstybės suverenitetą

        1990 m. kovo 11 d. Lietuva paskelbė atkurianti visišką valstybės suverenitetą.

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        13.04.1990 | PSRS oficiāli atzīst NKVD vainu Katiņas masu slepkavībā

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        13.01.1991 | The January Events in Lithuanian

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        13.01.1991 | Notiek Latvijas Tautas Frontes Domes izsludinātā Vislatvijas tautas manifestācija

        Latvijas Tautas Frontes Dome izsludina Vislatvijas tautas manifestāciju, lai 13. janvārī atbalstītu likumīgi (gan vēl pēc okupācijas laika likumiem) ievēlēto valdību, kā arī pieņēma lēmumu apsargāt stratēģiski svarīgākos objektus.

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        11.02.1991 | Iceland - the first country recognised Lithuania's independence

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        12.06.1991 | Borys Jelcyn wygrał wybory prezydenckie w Rosji

        Wybory prezydenckie w Rosji w 1991 roku odbyły się 12 czerwca 1991 roku. Były to pierwsze wybory prezydenckie w Rosji. Wybory wygrał Borys Jelcyn który tym samym został prezydentem istniejącej wtedy jeszcze RFSRR.

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        10.07.1991 | Borys Jelcyn rozpoczął urzędowanie jako pierwszy prezydent Rosji

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        19.08.1991 | Soviet coup d'état attempt

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        20.08.1991 | Estonia declares independence

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        21.08.1991 | Latvija pieņem konstitucionālo likumu Par Latvijas Republikas valstisko statusu

        Augusta pučs (krievu: Августовский путч) bija neveiksmīgs valsts apvērsuma mēģinājums Padomju Savienībā 1991. gada 19.—21. augustā ar mērķi gāzt prezidentu Mihailu Gorbačovu un izbeigt viņa uzsākto valsts demokratizācijas procesu, kā arī nepieļaut Savienības līguma, kas paredzēja reformēt Padomju Savienību, parakstīšanu. LR AP pieņēma Konstitucionālo likumu „Par Latvijas Republikas valstisko statusu”, kurā noteica, ka tālākas sarunas ar PSRS varas un pārvaldes iestādēm par neatkarības atjaunošanu vairs nav iespējamas

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        06.09.1991 | PSRS atzīst 1940. gadā okupēto Baltijas valstu atjaunoto neatkarību

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        06.09.1991 | Day of Restoration of Independence of the Chechen State

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        06.11.1991 | Ar Borisa Jeļcina Dekrētu Krievijā tiek aizliegta kompartija

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        08.12.1991 | Belovežas vienošanās - Krievija, Baltkrievija un Ukraina izveido NVS

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        12.12.1991 | Krievija denonsēja 1922. gada līgumu par PSRS izveidi

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        21.12.1991 | NVS paplašināšanās

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        25.12.1991 | Gorbačovs - PSRS Prezidents paliek bez valsts

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        26.12.1991 | PSRS oficiāli beidz pastāvēt

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        21.09.1993 | 1993 Russian constitutional crisis

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        03.10.1993 | «Расстрел Белого дома» В Москве

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        05.10.1993 | Расстрельное «Письмо сорока двух»

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        26.02.1994 | Prezydent Borys Jelcyn ułaskawił swoich politycznych przeciwników aresztowanych po kryzysie konstytucyjnym w październiku 1993.

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        30.04.1994 | Tiek noslēgts "LR un KF līgums par KF Bruņoto spēku pilnīgas izvešanas no LR teritorijas nosacījumiem..."

        Latvijas Republikas un Krievijas Federācijas līgums par Krievijas Federācijas Bruņoto spēku pilnīgas izvešanas no Latvijas Republikas teritorijas nosacījumiem, termiņiem un kārtību un to tiesisko stāvokli izvešanas laikā

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        05.12.1994 | The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances

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        11.12.1994 | Sākās 1. Čečenijas karš

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        01.03.1995 | The assassination Vladislav Listyev

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        16.04.1996 | Бой у Ярыш-Марды

        В середине апреля 1996-го в Шатойском районе Чечни, под Ярыш-Марды была разгромлена колонна 245-го мотострелкового полка. Было там почти 90 трупов и более 50 раненых. А из 27 единиц бронетехники боевики сожгли 24.

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        03.07.1996 | Boriss Jeļcins tiek ievēlēts par KF prezidentu uz otru termiņu.

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        31.03.1997 | Договор о дружбе между Россией и Украиной

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        01.04.1997 | Krievijā izdots dekrēts, ka valsts amatpersonām jāizmanto Krievijā ražotās automašīnas

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        12.08.1998 | Редакция газеты "Юридический Петербург сегодня" опубликовала статью про Владимира Путина

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        24.03.1999 | NATO spēki sāk bombardēt Serbiju, lai apturētu tās realizēto genocīdu Kosovā

        Operation Allied Force; the United States called it Operation Noble Anvil, in Yugoslavia the operation was named "Merciful Angel" (Serbian Cyrillic: Милосрдни анђео

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        28.03.1999 | Попытка обстрела посольства США в Москве

        Приметно, что уже на следующий день появился анекдот. Москва. Вокзал. Подходит турист с чемоданом к одному местному и спрашивает: - как попасть в американское посольство? тот грустно с досадой: - лучше целиться надо. Вот, ход событий того дня.

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        30.09.1999 | Russian army entered Grozny marking the beginning of the Second Chechen War

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        31.12.1999 | Putins nomaina Jeļcinu Krievijas prezidenta amatā

        1999. gada 31. decembris. Pēc tam, kad prezidents Boriss Jeļcins labprātīgi atstāj amatu, Putins kļūst par Krievijas Federācijas prezidenta pienākumu izpildītāju. Tajā pašā dienā Putinam tika nodoti prezidenta varas simboli un "kodolportfelis".

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        26.03.2000 | Владимир Путин был избран Президентом России

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        07.05.2000 | Vladimir Putin was inaugurated as President of Russia

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        01.02.2011 | Десталинизации россиского общества Караганова

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        28.08.2014 | Juris Ciganovs: Divdesmit gadi kopš Krievijas armijas izvešanas

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        20.11.2016 | Andris Pauls-Pāvuls: Vai Latvija var novērst Trešo pasaules karu?


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        05.04.2018 | Jānis Peters: Kā mēs aizbēgām uz partijas 19. konferenci

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