Maria Alexandrovna

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Marija Alexandrowna Romanowa, Мария Александровна, Lielkņaze Marija Aleksandrovna;Великая Княжна Мария Александровна Герцогиня Эдинбургская и Герцогиня Саксен-Кобу
Aristocrat, Duke, Knyaz (Prince, Duke)
Sts Peter and Paul Cathedral

Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (later Duchess of Edinburgh and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; 17 October 1853 – 24 October 1920) was a daughter of Alexander II of Russia and Empress Maria Alexandrovna. Maria became the wife of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

From 1893 until her death, she had the distinction of being a Russian grand duchess (by birth), a British princess and royal duchess (by marriage), and the consort (and later widow) of a German sovereign duke.

Early life

The Duchess was born at Tsarskoye Selo, Russia, the second and only surviving daughter of Alexander II, Emperor of Russia (who was assassinated in 1881) and his wife Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, daughter of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. She was the aunt of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia who was murdered in 1918. Her brother, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia was assassinated in Moscow in 1905, and another brother, Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia was shot in Saint Petersburg in 1919.


Grand Duchess Maria was introduced to Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen Victoria, by the Princess of Wales and the Tsesarevna of Russia during a family holiday in Denmark in 1871. The Princess and Tsesarevna were sisters and Danish princesses. Maria and Alfred married on 23 January 1874 at the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg. The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh made their public entry into London on 12 March.

The marriage, however, was not to become a happy one, and the bride was thought haughty by London Society. Furthermore, Tsar Alexander II's insistence that his daughter be styled "Her Imperial Highness" and have precedence over the then Princess of Wales infuriated Queen Victoria. The Queen insisted that the style "Her Royal Highness" Maria Alexandrovna acquired upon marriage should always precede the style "Her Imperial Highness," which was hers by birth. For her part, the new Duchess of Edinburgh apparently resented the fact that the Princess of Wales, who was the daughter of the King of Denmark, took precedence over her, the daughter of the Emperor of Russia. After the marriage, Maria was varyingly referred to as Her Royal Highness, Her Royal & Imperial Highness, and Her Imperial & Royal Highness.

Queen Victoria granted her precedence immediately after the Princess of Wales. Her father gave her the then staggering sum of £100,000 as a dowry, plus an annual allowance of £28,000.

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

On the death of his uncle, Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, on 22 August 1893, the vacant duchy fell to the Duke of Edinburgh, since his elder brother the Prince of Wales had renounced his right to the succession. Upon her husband's ascension to the Ducal throne, the Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna became Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in addition to being Duchess of Edinburgh. She thoroughly enjoyed being in Coburg, having yearned to leave England. As the consort of a sovereign German duke, she technically outranked her sisters-in-law at Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations.

The couple's only son, Hereditary Prince Alfred, became involved in a scandal involving his mistress and shot himself in January 1899, in the midst of his parents' twenty-fifth wedding anniversary celebrations. He survived, but his embarrassed parents sent him off to Meran to recover, where he died two weeks later, on 6 February. The Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha died of throat cancer on 30 July 1900 at The Rosenau in Coburg. The ducal throne passed to his nephew, Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany. The Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha continued to reside in Coburg.

Later life

She died in October 1920 in Zürich, Switzerland apparently after receiving a telegram addressed to her as "Frau Coburg"; she was buried in the Ducal Family's cemetery outside Coburg. Of her four daughters, the Queen of Romania was forbidden to attend or to travel to Germany to attend her funeral due to the recent war, in which Germany and Romania had fought on opposite sides.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles
  • 17 October 1853 – 23 January 1874: Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia
  • 23 January 1874 – 22 August 1893: Her Imperial & Royal Highness The Duchess of Edinburgh
  • 22 August 1893 – 11 October 1905: Her Imperial & Royal Highness The Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • 11 October 1905 – 24 October 1920: Her Imperial & Royal Highness The Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • Lady of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert (first class) (British)
  • Imperial Order of the Crown of India (British)
  • Order of St. Catherine (Russian)



Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Marie, Queen of Romania Victoria, Grand Duchess of Russia Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera

Source: wikipedia.org

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        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Alexander IIAlexander IIFather29.04.181813.03.1881
        2Maria  AlexandrovnaMaria AlexandrovnaMother08.08.182403.06.1880
        3Prince AlfredPrince AlfredSon15.10.187406.02.1899
        4Marie of RomaniaMarie of RomaniaDaughter29.10.187518.07.1938
        5Сергей  РомановСергей РомановBrother11.05.185717.02.1905
        6Alexander IIIAlexander IIIBrother10.03.184501.11.1894
        7Владимир АлександровичВладимир АлександровичBrother10.04.184704.02.1909
        8Paul  AlexandrovichPaul AlexandrovichBrother03.10.186030.01.1919
        9Сергей АлександровичСергей АлександровичBrother11.05.185717.02.1905
        10Alfrēds Edinburgas, Olsteras un Kentas, Saksen- Koburgas  un Gotas HercogsAlfrēds Edinburgas, Olsteras un Kentas, Saksen- Koburgas un Gotas HercogsHusband06.09.184431.07.1900
        11William IIIWilliam IIIUncle19.02.181723.11.1890
        12Михаил НиколаевичМихаил НиколаевичUncle25.10.183218.12.1909
        13Louis IIILouis IIIUncle09.06.180613.06.1877
        14Николай СтаршийНиколай СтаршийUncle27.07.183113.04.1891
        15Карл ГессенскийКарл ГессенскийUncle23.04.180920.03.1877
        16Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeFrancis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeUncle28.08.183721.01.1900
        17Константин КонстантиновичКонстантин КонстантиновичUncle10.08.185802.06.1915
        18Konstantin NikolayevichKonstantin NikolayevichUncle21.09.182725.01.1892
        19Дмитрий Константинович РомановДмитрий Константинович РомановUncle01.06.186030.01.1919
        20Grand Duchess Maria  Nikolaevna of RussiaGrand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of RussiaAunt18.08.181921.02.1876
        21Екатерина МихайловнаЕкатерина МихайловнаAunt16.08.182730.04.1894
        22Olga  NikolaevnaOlga NikolaevnaAunt11.09.182230.10.1892
        23Marie Luise Augusta KatharineMarie Luise Augusta KatharineAunt30.09.181107.01.1890
        24Кирилл ВладимировичКирилл ВладимировичNephew12.10.187612.10.1938
        25Mikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovMikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovNephew04.12.187813.06.1918
        26Дарья  БогарнэДарья БогарнэNephew07.03.187005.11.1937
        27Князь Роман ПетровичКнязь Роман ПетровичNephew17.10.189623.10.1978
        28Vladimir  PaleyVladimir PaleyNephew09.01.189718.07.1918
        29Dmitri  PavlovichDmitri PavlovichNephew06.09.189105.03.1942
        30Andrei  VladimirovichAndrei VladimirovichNephew02.05.187930.10.1956
        31Всеволод  РомановВсеволод РомановNephew20.01.191418.06.1973
        32Boris  Wladimirowitsch RomanowBoris Wladimirowitsch RomanowNephew24.11.187709.11.1943
        33Edward  VIIIEdward VIIINephew23.06.189428.05.1972
        34Victoria of BadenVictoria of BadenNiece07.08.186204.04.1930
        35Марина  РомановаМарина РомановаNiece11.03.189215.05.1981
        36Princess Catherine IvanovnaPrincess Catherine IvanovnaNiece25.07.191513.03.2007
        37Великая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаВеликая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаNiece06.04.187520.04.1960
        38Ольга  РомановаОльга РомановаNiece13.06.188224.11.1960
        39Grand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGrand Duchess Maria PavlovnaNiece18.04.189013.12.1958
        40Natalia PaleyNatalia PaleyNiece05.12.190527.12.1981
        41Надежда  РомановаНадежда РомановаNiece15.03.189821.04.1988
        42Grand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaGrand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaNiece17.03.188213.03.1957
        43Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and GothaFather in-law26.08.181914.12.1861
        44Queen VictoriaQueen VictoriaMother in-law24.05.181922.01.1901
        45Ferdinand IFerdinand ISon in-law24.08.186520.07.1927
        46Olga  PaleyOlga PaleySister in-law02.12.186502.11.1929
        47Alexandra  GeorgievnaAlexandra GeorgievnaSister in-law30.08.187024.09.1891
        48Victoria Princess RoyalVictoria Princess RoyalSister in-law21.11.184005.08.1901
        49Empress Alexandra  FeodorovnaEmpress Alexandra FeodorovnaSister in-law06.06.187217.07.1918
        50Принцесса ЛуизаПринцесса ЛуизаSister in-law18.03.184803.12.1939
        51Princess Alice Of the United KingdomPrincess Alice Of the United KingdomSister in-law25.04.184314.12.1878
        52Victoria  MelitaVictoria MelitaSister in-law25.11.187602.03.1936
        53Beatrice Mary Victoria  FeodoreBeatrice Mary Victoria FeodoreSister in-law14.04.185726.10.1944
        54Maria  PavlovnaMaria PavlovnaSister in-law14.05.185406.09.1920
        55Виктория Гессен-ДармштадтскаяВиктория Гессен-ДармштадтскаяSister in-law05.04.186324.09.1950
        56Елизавета ФёдоровнаЕлизавета ФёдоровнаSister in-law01.11.186418.07.1918
        57Мария ФёдоровнаМария ФёдоровнаSister in-law26.11.184713.10.1928
        58Edvards VIIEdvards VIIBrother in-law09.11.184106.05.1910
        59Prince LeopoldPrince LeopoldBrother in-law07.04.185328.03.1884
        60Артур Уильям Патрик, принц ВеликобританииАртур Уильям Патрик, принц ВеликобританииBrother in-law01.05.185016.01.1942
        61Princess BeatricePrincess BeatriceBrother in-law14.04.185726.10.1944
        62Людвиг II Гессен-Дармштадтский и ПрирейнскийЛюдвиг II Гессен-Дармштадтский и ПрирейнскийGrandfather26.12.177716.06.1848
        63Louis II Hesse, Grand DukeLouis II Hesse, Grand DukeGrandfather26.12.177716.06.1848
        64Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas I of RussiaGrandfather06.07.179618.02.1855
        65Alexander  Württemberg, DukeAlexander Württemberg, DukeGrandfather09.09.180404.07.1885
        66Александра ИосифовнаАлександра ИосифовнаGrandmother08.07.183006.07.1911
        67Wilhelmine   Baden, PrincessWilhelmine Baden, PrincessGrandmother21.09.178827.01.1836
        68Александра ФёдоровнаАлександра ФёдоровнаGrandmother13.07.179801.11.1860
        69Elisabeth of  RomaniaElisabeth of RomaniaGrandson12.10.189414.11.1956
        70George VIGeorge VIGrandson14.12.189506.02.1952
        71Prince George Duke of KentPrince George Duke of KentGrandson20.12.190225.08.1942
        72Maria of YugoslaviaMaria of YugoslaviaGranddaughter06.01.190022.06.1961
        73Михаил ПавловичМихаил ПавловичGreat grandfather08.02.179828.08.1849
        74Георгий Петрович ОльденбургскийГеоргий Петрович ОльденбургскийGreat grandfather00.00.178400.00.1812
        75Charles FrederickCharles FrederickGreat grandfather02.02.178308.07.1853
        76Louis Württemberg, DukeLouis Württemberg, DukeGreat grandfather30.08.175620.09.1817
        77Paul IPaul IGreat grandfather01.10.175423.03.1801
        78Екатерина ПавловнаЕкатерина ПавловнаGreat grandmother10.05.178809.01.1819
        79Henriette  Nassau-Weilburg, PrincessHenriette Nassau-Weilburg, PrincessGreat grandmother22.04.178002.01.1857
        80Елена ПавловнаЕлена ПавловнаGreat grandmother28.12.180621.01.1873
        81Maria  PavlovnaMaria PavlovnaGreat grandmother04.02.178611.06.1859
        82Maria FeodorovnaMaria FeodorovnaGreat grandmother14.10.175924.10.1828
        83Frederick IX of DenmarkFrederick IX of DenmarkGreat grandson11.03.189914.01.1972
        84Prince Nikita  Nikitich RomanovPrince Nikita Nikitich RomanovGreat grandson13.05.192303.05.2007
        85Princess Margaret, Countess of SnowdonPrincess Margaret, Countess of SnowdonGreat granddaughter21.08.193009.02.2002
        86Elizabeth IIElizabeth IIGreat granddaughter21.04.192608.09.2022
        87Карл Шведский, герцог ВестергётландскийКарл Шведский, герцог ВестергётландскийCousin27.02.186124.10.1951
        88Igor  ConstantinovichIgor ConstantinovichCousin29.05.189418.07.1918
        89Mary of TeckMary of TeckCousin26.05.186724.03.1953
        90Александр ИскандерАлександр ИскандерCousin15.11.188726.01.1957
        91Михаил Михайлович, Великий князьМихаил Михайлович, Великий князьCousin16.10.186126.04.1929
        92Prince Christopher  of Greece and DenmarkPrince Christopher of Greece and DenmarkCousin10.08.188821.01.1940
        93Princess LouisePrincess LouiseCousin03.12.183823.04.1923
        94Grand Duke Alexander MikhailovichGrand Duke Alexander MikhailovichCousin13.04.186626.02.1933
        95Princess Maria of Greece and DenmarkPrincess Maria of Greece and DenmarkCousin03.03.187614.12.1940
        96Nicholas  MikhailovichNicholas MikhailovichCousin14.04.185930.01.1919
        97Анастасия МихайловнаАнастасия МихайловнаCousin28.07.186011.03.1922
        98Prince Nicholas of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Nicholas of Greece and DenmarkCousin22.01.187208.02.1938
        99Duke Constantine  Petrovich of OldenburgDuke Constantine Petrovich of OldenburgCousin09.05.185018.03.1906
        100Grand Duke Nicholas  Nikolaevich of RussiaGrand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of RussiaCousin18.11.185605.01.1929
        101Георгий Мекленбург-СтрелицкийГеоргий Мекленбург-СтрелицкийCousin25.05.185905.12.1909
        102Gabriel RomanovGabriel RomanovCousin15.07.188728.02.1955
        103Georgy  KonstantinovichGeorgy KonstantinovichCousin23.04.190307.11.1938
        104Принц Николай ПетровичПринц Николай ПетровичCousin09.05.184020.01.1886
        105Alexander CambridgeAlexander CambridgeCousin14.04.187416.01.1957
        106Мориц Саксен-АльтенбургскийМориц Саксен-АльтенбургскийCousin24.10.182913.05.1907
        107Prince Ioann  Konstantinovich of RussiaPrince Ioann Konstantinovich of RussiaCousin05.07.188618.07.1918
        108Николай КонстантиновичНиколай КонстантиновичCousin14.02.185027.01.1918
        109Тереза ОльденбургскаяТереза ОльденбургскаяCousin30.03.185219.04.1883
        110Constantine I of GreeceConstantine I of GreeceCousin02.08.186811.01.1923
        111Принц Александр  ОльденбургскийПринц Александр ОльденбургскийCousin02.06.184406.09.1932
        112Великий Князь Георгий МихайловичВеликий Князь Георгий МихайловичCousin23.08.186330.01.1919
        113Алексей МихайловичАлексей МихайловичCousin28.12.187502.03.1895
        114Louis IVLouis IVCousin12.09.183713.03.1892
        115Prince Andrew of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Andrew of Greece and DenmarkCousin02.02.188203.12.1944
        116Olga  Constantinovna of RussiaOlga Constantinovna of RussiaCousin03.09.185118.06.1926
        117Duchess Alexandra  Petrovna of OldenburgDuchess Alexandra Petrovna of OldenburgCousin02.06.183825.04.1900
        118Вера КонстантиновнаВера КонстантиновнаCousin24.04.190611.01.2001
        119князь Георгий Максимилианович Романовскийкнязь Георгий Максимилианович РомановскийCousin29.02.185203.05.1912
        120Великий князь Пётр НиколаевичВеликий князь Пётр НиколаевичCousin10.01.186417.06.1931
        121Oleg  KonstantinovichOleg KonstantinovichCousin15.11.189229.09.1914
        122Великий князь Сергей МихайловичВеликий князь Сергей МихайловичCousin07.10.186918.07.1918
        123Nikolajs II RomanovsNikolajs II Romanovsdistant relative19.05.186817.07.1918

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