Maria Pavlovna

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Maria Pawłowna, Мария Павловна, Великая княжна Мария Павловна, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia
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The Historical Cemetery, Weimar,

Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (Russian: Мария Павловна; 16 February 1786 – 23 June 1859) was the third daughter of Paul I of Russia and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. She was the Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach by her marriage to Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.


Born on 16 February 1786 in Saint Petersburg to Paul I of Russia and his wife Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Maria Pavlovna was raised at her father's lavish palaces at Pavlovsk and at the nearby Gatchina.

She was the sister of:

  • Alexander I, Tsar of Russia (1777–1825), m. Luise Auguste, Princess of Baden (Elizabeth Alexeiyevna) (1779–1826), and had two daughters (both died in childhood).
  • Konstantin Pavlovich, Grand Duke of Russia (1779–1831), married Juliane, Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Anna Feodorovna) (1781–1860); married Joanna, Countess Grudsinska, Princess Lowicz (1799–1831). No children.
  • Alexandra Pavlovna (1783–1801) m. Joseph, Archduke of Austria, Count Palatine of Hungary (1776–1847), and had one daughter (died at birth).
  • Elena Pavlovna (1784–1803) m. Friedrich Ludwig, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1778–1819), and had two children.
  • Catherine Pavlovna (1788–1819) married Georg, Duke of Oldenburg (1784–1812), had two sons; married Wilhelm I, King of Württemberg (1781–1864), and had two daughters.
  • Olga Pavlovna (22 July 1792 – 26 January 1795).
  • Anna Pavlovna (1795–1865) m. Willem II, King of the Netherlands (1792–1849), and had five children.
  • Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia (1796–1855), m. Charlotte, Princess of Prussia (Alexandra Feodorovna) (1798–1860), and had ten children.
  • Michael Pavlovich, Grand Duke of Russia (1798–1849), m. Charlotte, Princess of Württemberg (Elena Pavlovna) (1807–1873), and had five children.

As a child, she was not considered pretty: her features were disfigured as a result of a pioneering application of the Smallpox vaccine. Her grandmother, Catherine II of Russia, admired her precocious talent as a pianist but declared that she would have been better to have been born a boy. Her music instructor was Giuseppe Sarti (1729-1802), an Italian composer and Kapellmeister at the Russian court. From 1798, she was taught music by Ludwig-Wilhelm Tepper de Ferguson (1768-1838). In 1796 her grandmother died making her father the new Emperor of Russia as Paul I.


On 3 August 1804, she married Charles Frederick, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (later Grand Duke) (2 February 1783 – 8 July 1853). The couple stayed in Saint Petersburg for nine months, before departing for Weimar. There Maria was greeted with a bout of festivities, as described by Christoph Martin Wieland: "The most festive part of all the magnificence of balls, fireworks, promenades, comedies, illuminations was the widespread and genuine joy at the arrival of our new princess".


Maria and Carl had four children:

  • Paul Alexander Karl Constantin Frederick August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (25 September 1805, Weimar – 10 April 1806, Weimar)
  • Marie Luise Alexandrine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877), married Karl of Prussia
  • Augusta Louisa Katherine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1811–1890), married Wilhelm I and became German Empress.
  • Karl Alexander August Johann of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1818–1901)

After the death of the Grand Duke Carl Friedrich in 1853 she retired from public life.

Her last trip to Russia was to the coronation of her nephew as Alexander II of Russia in 1855.

Patronage of arts and sciences

Maria Pavlovna was interested in arts as well as in sciences. She was a patroness of art, science and social welfare in the poor Grand-Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. She maintained a lifelong correspondence with Vasily Zhukovsky and it was to her that Schiller dedicated one of his last poems. She attended ten courses at the University of Jena, some delivered by Alexander von Humboldt, and was instrumental in establishing the Falk Institute in Weimar.

She selected, as tutor to her son Charles Alexander, the Genevan Frédéric Soret, who became well acquainted with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In her later years, Maria Pavlovna invited Franz Liszt to her court, restoring a measure of artistic excellence previously associated with Weimar. He was appointed Kapellmeister Extraordinaire in 1842, and settled there from 1848 (after giving up the concert platform) until after her death. However, the Duchess's growing deafness prevented her from enjoying the premiere of Wagner's opera Lohengrin under Liszt's direction in Weimar on 28 August 1850.

Most famous were the "Literary Evenings (Literarische Abende)" where scholars from the neighboring Jena University and others from outside the Grand-Dukedom were invited to give lectures on various topics. This circle was a focus in post-classical Weimar.

Several collections of the Jena University benefitted by her patronage, among them the Grandducal Oriental Coin Cabinet founded in 1840 by Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist at the University.

Schiller praised her "talents in music and painting and genuine love of reading", while Goethe hailed her as one of the worthiest women of his time.

Her Traces in Jena and Weimar

She owned a small chalet close to Jena, owned formerly by the Protestant theologist of Enlightenment Griesbach, where she used to spend the summer with her children. Maria Pavlovna is buried in Weimar, in a Russian-style chapel by the side of the Goethe-Schiller Mausoleum.

Source: wikipedia.org

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        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Gustaf VI Adolf of SwedenGustaf VI Adolf of SwedenDescendant11.11.188215.09.1973
        2Paul IPaul IFather01.10.175423.03.1801
        3Maria FeodorovnaMaria FeodorovnaMother14.10.175924.10.1828
        4Karl Alexander August JohannKarl Alexander August JohannSon24.06.181805.01.1901
        Paul Alexander Karl Constantin Frederick AugustSon25.09.180510.04.1806
        6Marie Luise Augusta KatharineMarie Luise Augusta KatharineDaughter30.09.181107.01.1890
        7Marie Luise AlexandrineMarie Luise AlexandrineDaughter03.02.180818.01.1877
        8Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas I of RussiaBrother06.07.179618.02.1855
        9Михаил ПавловичМихаил ПавловичBrother08.02.179828.08.1849
        10Alexander I of RussiaAlexander I of RussiaBrother12.12.177719.11.1825
        11Константин ПавловичКонстантин ПавловичBrother27.04.177915.06.1831
        12Anna PavlovnaAnna PavlovnaSister18.01.179501.03.1865
        13Екатерина ПавловнаЕкатерина ПавловнаSister10.05.178809.01.1819
        14Елена  ПавловнаЕлена ПавловнаSister17.12.178424.09.1803
        15Charles FrederickCharles FrederickHusband02.02.178308.07.1853
        16Louis Württemberg, DukeLouis Württemberg, DukeUncle30.08.175620.09.1817
        Anna PiotrownaAunt20.12.175716.03.1759
        18Михаил НиколаевичМихаил НиколаевичNephew25.10.183218.12.1909
        19Konstantin NikolayevichKonstantin NikolayevichNephew21.09.182725.01.1892
        20Gustaw EhrenbergGustaw EhrenbergNephew14.02.181828.09.1895
        21Alexander IIAlexander IINephew29.04.181813.03.1881
        22William IIIWilliam IIINephew19.02.181723.11.1890
        23Duke Peter  Georgievich of OldenburgDuke Peter Georgievich of OldenburgNephew26.08.181214.05.1881
        24Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeFrancis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeNephew28.08.183721.01.1900
        25Николай СтаршийНиколай СтаршийNephew27.07.183113.04.1891
        26Константин КонстантиновичКонстантин КонстантиновичNephew10.08.185802.06.1915
        27Grand Duchess Maria  Nikolaevna of RussiaGrand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of RussiaNiece18.08.181921.02.1876
        28Екатерина МихайловнаЕкатерина МихайловнаNiece16.08.182730.04.1894
        29Sophie Of the NetherlandsSophie Of the NetherlandsNiece08.04.182423.03.1897
        30Olga  NikolaevnaOlga NikolaevnaNiece11.09.182230.10.1892
        31Елена ПавловнаЕлена ПавловнаSister in-law28.12.180621.01.1873
        32Александра ФёдоровнаАлександра ФёдоровнаSister in-law13.07.179801.11.1860
        33Виллем IIВиллем IIBrother in-law06.12.179217.03.1849
        34Frederick  LouisFrederick LouisBrother in-law13.06.177829.11.1819
        35Георгий Петрович ОльденбургскийГеоргий Петрович ОльденбургскийBrother in-law00.00.178400.00.1812
        36Elizabeth  AlexeievnaElizabeth AlexeievnaBrother in-law24.01.177916.05.1826
        37Peter IIIPeter IIIGrandfather21.02.172817.07.1762
        38Frederick II Eugene Württemberg, DukeFrederick II Eugene Württemberg, DukeGrandfather21.01.173223.12.1797
        39Stanisław PoniatowskiStanisław PoniatowskiGrandfather17.01.173212.02.1798
        40Catherine the  GreatCatherine the GreatGrandmother02.05.172917.11.1796
        41Grand Duke Alexander MikhailovichGrand Duke Alexander MikhailovichGrandson13.04.186626.02.1933
        42Великий Князь Георгий МихайловичВеликий Князь Георгий МихайловичGrandson23.08.186330.01.1919
        43Nicholas  MikhailovichNicholas MikhailovichGrandson14.04.185930.01.1919
        44Paul  AlexandrovichPaul AlexandrovichGrandson03.10.186030.01.1919
        45Владимир АлександровичВладимир АлександровичGrandson10.04.184704.02.1909
        46Alexander IIIAlexander IIIGrandson10.03.184501.11.1894
        47Дмитрий Константинович РомановДмитрий Константинович РомановGrandson01.06.186030.01.1919
        48Анастасия МихайловнаАнастасия МихайловнаGranddaughter28.07.186011.03.1922
        49Princess LouisePrincess LouiseGranddaughter03.12.183823.04.1923
        50Карл Фридрих Гольштейн-ГотторпскийКарл Фридрих Гольштейн-ГотторпскийGreat grandfather
        51Анна ПетровнаАнна ПетровнаGreat grandmother27.01.170804.03.1728
        52Князь Никита АлександровичКнязь Никита АлександровичGreat grandson16.01.190012.09.1974
        53Andrei  VladimirovichAndrei VladimirovichGreat grandson02.05.187930.10.1956
        54Prince Vasili AlexandrovichPrince Vasili AlexandrovichGreat grandson07.07.190724.06.1989
        55Nikolajs II RomanovsNikolajs II RomanovsGreat grandson19.05.186817.07.1918
        56Князь Андрей АлександровичКнязь Андрей АлександровичGreat grandson24.01.189708.05.1981
        57Vladimir  PaleyVladimir PaleyGreat grandson09.01.189718.07.1918
        58князь Георгий Максимилианович Романовскийкнязь Георгий Максимилианович РомановскийGreat grandson29.02.185203.05.1912
        59Кирилл ВладимировичКирилл ВладимировичGreat grandson12.10.187612.10.1938
        60Dmitri  PavlovichDmitri PavlovichGreat grandson06.09.189105.03.1942
        61Boris  Wladimirowitsch RomanowBoris Wladimirowitsch RomanowGreat grandson24.11.187709.11.1943
        62Grand Duke Nicholas  Nikolaevich of RussiaGrand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of RussiaGreat grandson18.11.185605.01.1929
        63George VIGeorge VIGreat grandson14.12.189506.02.1952
        64Prince Christopher  of Greece and DenmarkPrince Christopher of Greece and DenmarkGreat grandson10.08.188821.01.1940
        65Великий князь Пётр НиколаевичВеликий князь Пётр НиколаевичGreat grandson10.01.186417.06.1931
        66Александр ИскандерАлександр ИскандерGreat grandson15.11.188726.01.1957
        67Prince AlfredPrince AlfredGreat grandson15.10.187406.02.1899
        68Mikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovMikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovGreat grandson04.12.187813.06.1918
        69Prince Nicholas of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Nicholas of Greece and DenmarkGreat grandson22.01.187208.02.1938
        70Сергей  РомановСергей РомановGreat grandson11.05.185717.02.1905
        71Constantine I of GreeceConstantine I of GreeceGreat grandson02.08.186811.01.1923
        72Ростислав АлександровичРостислав АлександровичGreat grandson24.11.190231.07.1978
        73Prince Andrew of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Andrew of Greece and DenmarkGreat grandson02.02.188203.12.1944
        74Князь Дмитрий АлександровичКнязь Дмитрий АлександровичGreat grandson15.08.190107.07.1980
        75Сергей АлександровичСергей АлександровичGreat grandson11.05.185717.02.1905
        76Grand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaGrand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaGreat granddaughter17.03.188213.03.1957
        77Marie of RomaniaMarie of RomaniaGreat granddaughter29.10.187518.07.1938
        78Princess Maria of Greece and DenmarkPrincess Maria of Greece and DenmarkGreat granddaughter03.03.187614.12.1940
        79Princess Nina GeorgievnaPrincess Nina GeorgievnaGreat granddaughter20.06.190127.02.1974
        80Alexandra  GeorgievnaAlexandra GeorgievnaGreat granddaughter30.08.187024.09.1891
        81Princess Xenia  Georgievna of RussiaPrincess Xenia Georgievna of RussiaGreat granddaughter22.08.190317.09.1965
        82Cecilie  Mecklenburg Schwerin, DuchessCecilie Mecklenburg Schwerin, DuchessGreat granddaughter20.09.188606.05.1954
        83Maria AlexandrovnaMaria AlexandrovnaGreat granddaughter17.10.185324.10.1920
        84Victoria of BadenVictoria of BadenGreat granddaughter07.08.186204.04.1930
        85Grand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGrand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGreat granddaughter18.04.189013.12.1958
        86Irina Alexandrovna of RussiaIrina Alexandrovna of RussiaGreat granddaughter03.07.189526.02.1970
        87Natalia PaleyNatalia PaleyGreat granddaughter05.12.190527.12.1981
        88Alexandrine  of Mecklenburg-SchwerinAlexandrine of Mecklenburg-SchwerinGreat granddaughter24.12.187912.12.1952
        89Anastasia de TorbyAnastasia de TorbyGreat granddaughter09.09.189207.12.1977
        90Nadejda MountbattenNadejda MountbattenGreat granddaughter28.03.189622.01.1963
        91Ольга  РомановаОльга РомановаGreat granddaughter13.06.188224.11.1960
        92Великая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаВеликая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаGreat granddaughter06.04.187520.04.1960
        93Empress Alexandra  FeodorovnaEmpress Alexandra FeodorovnaGreat granddaughter06.06.187217.07.1918
        94Duchess Maria DorotheaDuchess Maria DorotheaCousin01.11.179730.03.1855
        95Alexander  Württemberg, DukeAlexander Württemberg, DukeCousin09.09.180404.07.1885

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